Abstract

We present observations of optical power limiting using a thermal nonlinearity in a dye-doped colloidal crystal. The transmission of the crystal is studied as a function of the incident intensity for various dye concentrations, lattice spacings, and wavelengths. We have found that optical limiting occurs when the wavelength of the incident light is tuned to the blue edge of the stop gap of these structures. Limiting intensities near 10 kW/cm2 have been obtained for colloidal solutions with 10−5 M Kiton Red dye. The experimental results are compared with theoretical models of nonlinear distributive-feedback structures in which the nonlinearity is assumed to be thermal.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, S. Guha, Opt. Lett. 13, 315 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1001 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Chen, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. M. de Sterke, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Martorell, N. M. Lawandy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1877 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. W. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. A. Rundquist, S. Jagannathan, R. Kesavamoorthy, C. Brnardic, S. Xu, S. A. Asher, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 711 (1991).
    [Crossref]

1991 (2)

H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1001 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. A. Rundquist, S. Jagannathan, R. Kesavamoorthy, C. Brnardic, S. Xu, S. A. Asher, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 711 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

J. Martorell, N. M. Lawandy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1877 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. W. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. M. de Sterke, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

W. Chen, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[Crossref]

Asher, S. A.

P. A. Rundquist, S. Jagannathan, R. Kesavamoorthy, C. Brnardic, S. Xu, S. A. Asher, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 711 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bambakidis, G.

P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
[Crossref]

Brnardic, C.

P. A. Rundquist, S. Jagannathan, R. Kesavamoorthy, C. Brnardic, S. Xu, S. A. Asher, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 711 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

C. M. de Sterke, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, S.

H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1001 (1991).
[Crossref]

Garmire, E.

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[Crossref]

Gohman, P. A.

P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
[Crossref]

Guha, S.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. W. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, S. Guha, Opt. Lett. 13, 315 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jagannathan, S.

P. A. Rundquist, S. Jagannathan, R. Kesavamoorthy, C. Brnardic, S. Xu, S. A. Asher, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 711 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kesavamoorthy, R.

P. A. Rundquist, S. Jagannathan, R. Kesavamoorthy, C. Brnardic, S. Xu, S. A. Asher, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 711 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lawandy, N. M.

J. Martorell, N. M. Lawandy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1877 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marburger, J. H.

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[Crossref]

Martorell, J.

J. Martorell, N. M. Lawandy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1877 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mills, D. L.

W. Chen, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rundquist, P. A.

P. A. Rundquist, S. Jagannathan, R. Kesavamoorthy, C. Brnardic, S. Xu, S. A. Asher, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 711 (1991).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. W. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sheik-bahae, M.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. W. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sipe, J. E.

C. M. de Sterke, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soileau, M. J.

D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, S. Guha, Opt. Lett. 13, 315 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
[Crossref]

Spry, R. J.

P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. W. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, S. Guha, Opt. Lett. 13, 315 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
[Crossref]

Wei, T. W.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. W. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[Crossref]

Williams, W. E.

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
[Crossref]

Winful, H. G.

H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1001 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. Y.

Xu, S.

P. A. Rundquist, S. Jagannathan, R. Kesavamoorthy, C. Brnardic, S. Xu, S. A. Asher, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 711 (1991).
[Crossref]

Zamir, R.

H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1001 (1991).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[Crossref]

H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1001 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. W. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. A. Rundquist, S. Jagannathan, R. Kesavamoorthy, C. Brnardic, S. Xu, S. A. Asher, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 711 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. M. de Sterke, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

W. Chen, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Martorell, N. M. Lawandy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1877 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmitted intensity versus the incident intensity. Curve (a), 100-μm-thick colloidal crystal with 10−5 M of Kiton Red dye; curve (b), solution to Eqs. (3) and (4); curve (c), solution for nonlocal nonlinearity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmitted intensity versus incident intensity for a 100-μm-thick colloidal crystal at various dye concentrations.

Equations (4)

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n ( z ) = n 0 + n 1 cos ( 4 π z n 0 λ 0 ) ,
n ( z ) = n 0 + ( n 1 + n 2 E 2 ) cos ( 2 β 0 z ) + n 2 E 2 ,
- i d E f d z = ( κ + ζ A b ) E b exp ( - 2 i Δ β z ) + γ A f E f + ζ E f 2 E b * exp ( 2 i Δ β z ) ,
i d E b d z = ( κ + ζ A f ) E f exp ( 2 i Δ β z ) + γ A b E b + ζ E f * E b 2 exp ( - 2 i Δ β z ) .

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