Abstract

A novel signal-processing scheme is presented for two-mode fiber in-line interferometric sensors in which frequency shifters are used as directional couplers that provide mode coupling to form an interferometer and simultaneously transfer the optical phase shift to the interference signal at the beat frequency (a few kilohertz to hundreds of kilohertz). The phase shift can be read directly by using a two-channel lock-in amplifier or a time-interval counter. Several sensing regions can be cascaded in a single strand of fiber, and cross talk between them is below −34 dB.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 92 (1986).
  2. H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. B. Patterson, M. J. F. Digonnet, A. C. Liu, G. S. Kino, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MD4.
  4. O. Lisbôa, S. L. A. Carrara, Opt. Lett. 17, 154 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Sabert, L. Dong, P. St. J. Russell, in Digest of Meetings on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper TuD9.

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 92 (1986).

Blake, J. N.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 92 (1986).

Carrara, S. L. A.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

D. B. Patterson, M. J. F. Digonnet, A. C. Liu, G. S. Kino, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MD4.

Dong, L.

H. Sabert, L. Dong, P. St. J. Russell, in Digest of Meetings on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper TuD9.

Engan, H. E.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

D. B. Patterson, M. J. F. Digonnet, A. C. Liu, G. S. Kino, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MD4.

Kim, B. Y.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 92 (1986).

Kino, G. S.

D. B. Patterson, M. J. F. Digonnet, A. C. Liu, G. S. Kino, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MD4.

Lisbôa, O.

Liu, A. C.

D. B. Patterson, M. J. F. Digonnet, A. C. Liu, G. S. Kino, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MD4.

Patterson, D. B.

D. B. Patterson, M. J. F. Digonnet, A. C. Liu, G. S. Kino, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MD4.

Russell, P. St. J.

H. Sabert, L. Dong, P. St. J. Russell, in Digest of Meetings on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper TuD9.

Sabert, H.

H. Sabert, L. Dong, P. St. J. Russell, in Digest of Meetings on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper TuD9.

Shaw, H. J.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 92 (1986).

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. J. Shaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 92 (1986).

Other (2)

D. B. Patterson, M. J. F. Digonnet, A. C. Liu, G. S. Kino, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MD4.

H. Sabert, L. Dong, P. St. J. Russell, in Digest of Meetings on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper TuD9.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-mode fiber in-line interferometric strain sensor. APD, avalanche photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-mode fiber in-line interferometric strain sensor array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase shift versus strain obtained with the setup shown in Fig. 1. The upper trace corresponds to l21, with the squares denoting tension and the crosses denoting compression. The lower trace corresponds to la, with a scale factor of 100:1.

Equations (7)

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E in = [ E 01 in E 11 in ] ,
α ( 1 ) = [ α 11 ( in ) α 12 ( in ) α 21 ( in ) α 22 ( in ) ] ,
f ( 1 ) ( ω 1 ) = [ f 11 ( 1 ) f 12 ( 1 ) exp ( j ω 1 t ) f 21 ( 1 ) exp ( - j ω 1 t ) f 22 ( 1 ) ] ,
δ ( ϕ 21 ) = [ exp ( - j ϕ 21 ) 0 0 1 ] .
E 01 out = { f 11 ( 2 ) f 11 ( 1 ) exp ( - j ϕ 21 ) + f 12 ( 2 ) f 21 ( 1 ) exp [ j ( ω 2 - ω 1 ) t ] } E 01 in .
1 + 2 f 11 ( 2 ) f 11 ( 1 ) f 12 ( 2 ) f 21 ( 1 ) f 11 ( 2 ) f 11 ( 1 ) 2 + f 12 ( 2 ) f 21 ( 1 ) 2 cos ( ω 21 t + ϕ 21 ) ,
V out j , m = 1 j < m n cos ( ω j m t + ϕ j m ) + intermodulation terms ,

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