Abstract

Continuous-wave stimulated Raman scattering was observed in 11–13-μm-diameter benzene and toluene microdroplets at pump intensities as low as 8 and 24 kW/cm2, respectively. Low thresholds were achieved by exploiting simultaneous pump and Stokes wave resonance in the droplets and Raman gains that were cavity QED enhanced ~50 times with respect to bulk liquid values. Based on a photon-state conservation argument, the cavity gain enhancement factor may be approximated by the ratio of the spectral spacing between resonant modes of the same order to that of the homogeneous Raman linewidth. This relation appears to be consistent with the relative experimental behavior of benzene, ethanol, and toluene.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 10, 37 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W.-F. Hsieh, J.-B. Zheng, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 13, 497 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Biswas, H. Latifi, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, Phys. Rev. A 40, 7413 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2079 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-Z. Zhang, R. K. Chang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 151 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Chýlek, H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, Opt. Lett. 16, 1723 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), Chap. 1, pp. 3–61.
  9. S. C. Ching, H. M. Lai, K. Young, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1995 (1987).S. C. Ching, H. M. Lai, K. Young, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 2004 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. DeMartini, G. Innocenti, G. Jacobovitz, P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2955 (1987); H. Yokoyama, K. Nishi, T. Anan, H. Yamada, S. D. Brorson, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2814 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1018 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, A. J. Campillo, “Cavity-mode identification of fluorescence and lasing in dye-doped microdroplets,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  14. E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Yokoyama, S. D. Brorson, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4801 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. R. L. Clements, B. P. Stoicheff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 246 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 924 (1971); D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 27, 802 (1971); .D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 28, 1162 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1991

1990

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2079 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1018 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

A. Biswas, H. Latifi, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, Phys. Rev. A 40, 7413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, S. D. Brorson, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4801 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J.-Z. Zhang, R. K. Chang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

S. C. Ching, H. M. Lai, K. Young, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1995 (1987).S. C. Ching, H. M. Lai, K. Young, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 2004 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. DeMartini, G. Innocenti, G. Jacobovitz, P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2955 (1987); H. Yokoyama, K. Nishi, T. Anan, H. Yamada, S. D. Brorson, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

1971

D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 924 (1971); D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 27, 802 (1971); .D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 28, 1162 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. R. L. Clements, B. P. Stoicheff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 246 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1946

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, R. L.

A. Biswas, H. Latifi, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, Phys. Rev. A 40, 7413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benner, R. E.

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), Chap. 1, pp. 3–61.

Biswas, A.

A. Biswas, H. Latifi, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, Phys. Rev. A 40, 7413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brorson, S. D.

H. Yokoyama, S. D. Brorson, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4801 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, A. J.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chýlek, H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, Opt. Lett. 16, 1723 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1018 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2079 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, A. J. Campillo, “Cavity-mode identification of fluorescence and lasing in dye-doped microdroplets,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

Ching, S. C.

Chýlek, P.

Clements, W. R. L.

W. R. L. Clements, B. P. Stoicheff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 246 (1968).
[CrossRef]

DeMartini, F.

F. DeMartini, G. Innocenti, G. Jacobovitz, P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2955 (1987); H. Yokoyama, K. Nishi, T. Anan, H. Yamada, S. D. Brorson, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eversole, J. D.

P. Chýlek, H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, Opt. Lett. 16, 1723 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1018 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2079 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, A. J. Campillo, “Cavity-mode identification of fluorescence and lasing in dye-doped microdroplets,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Hill, S. C.

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), Chap. 1, pp. 3–61.

Hsieh, W.-F.

Huston, A. L.

Innocenti, G.

F. DeMartini, G. Innocenti, G. Jacobovitz, P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2955 (1987); H. Yokoyama, K. Nishi, T. Anan, H. Yamada, S. D. Brorson, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jacobovitz, G.

F. DeMartini, G. Innocenti, G. Jacobovitz, P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2955 (1987); H. Yokoyama, K. Nishi, T. Anan, H. Yamada, S. D. Brorson, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 924 (1971); D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 27, 802 (1971); .D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 28, 1162 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H. M.

Latifi, H.

A. Biswas, H. Latifi, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, Phys. Rev. A 40, 7413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laubereau, A.

D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 924 (1971); D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 27, 802 (1971); .D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 28, 1162 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-B.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chýlek, H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, Opt. Lett. 16, 1723 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2079 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1018 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, A. J. Campillo, “Cavity-mode identification of fluorescence and lasing in dye-doped microdroplets,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Mataloni, P.

F. DeMartini, G. Innocenti, G. Jacobovitz, P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2955 (1987); H. Yokoyama, K. Nishi, T. Anan, H. Yamada, S. D. Brorson, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

A. Biswas, H. Latifi, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, Phys. Rev. A 40, 7413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S.-X.

Snow, J. B.

Stoicheff, B. P.

W. R. L. Clements, B. P. Stoicheff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 246 (1968).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 924 (1971); D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 27, 802 (1971); .D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 28, 1162 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

H. Yokoyama, S. D. Brorson, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4801 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Young, K.

Zhang, J.-Z.

Zheng, J.-B.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. R. L. Clements, B. P. Stoicheff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 246 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Yokoyama, S. D. Brorson, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4801 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

A. Biswas, H. Latifi, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, Phys. Rev. A 40, 7413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. DeMartini, G. Innocenti, G. Jacobovitz, P. Mataloni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2955 (1987); H. Yokoyama, K. Nishi, T. Anan, H. Yamada, S. D. Brorson, E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 924 (1971); D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 27, 802 (1971); .D. von der Linde, A. Laubereau, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 28, 1162 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1018 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, A. J. Campillo, “Cavity-mode identification of fluorescence and lasing in dye-doped microdroplets,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), Chap. 1, pp. 3–61.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Upper trace: an experimental plot of 514.5-nm elastic scattering versus the frequency of the vibrating-orifice droplet generator; droplet diameters vary from 11.4 μm at 550 kHz to 13.2 μm at 350 kHz. Lower trace: a plot of the 992-cm−1 Raman signal versus the orifice frequency; at 390 kHz the droplet is simultaneously in resonance with the pump (514.5 nm) and Raman (542 nm) waves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Curve (a): spectral dependence of spontaneous Raman signal from a 1-cm-long liquid benzene sample. Curve (b): spectral dependence of Raman emission from 12.7-μm-diameter benzene droplets at a 390-kHz orifice frequency (see Fig. 1). The SRS feature appears broad because of limited instrument resolution (2.25 cm−1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman intensity versus pump power for 12-μm-diameter benzene (circles), toluene (squares), and ethanol (triangles) microdroplets. Note that the intensity of the ethanol signal has been magnified 10 times. The nonlinear intensity dependence of the benzene and toluene are indicative of SRS.

Metrics