Abstract

A fiber-optic Doppler velocimeter that incorporates the effect of self-mixing in a diode laser is described. A theoretical model, based on self-mixing interference theory, is presented, and a simple experimental arrangement is constructed. The results of the experimental research are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. A Doppler velocity of as much as 3 m/s was measured directly, and a good linear relationship between the Doppler velocity and the Doppler-shifted frequency was obtained, which can be used to determine the speed of a moving object.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. J. Rudd, J. Phys. E 1, 723 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Shinohara, A. Mochizuki, H. Yoshida, M. Sumi, Appl. Opt. 25, 1417 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. W. Jentink, F. F. M. de Mul, H. E. Suichies, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. Greve, Appl. Opt. 27, 379 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. J. de Groot, G. M. Gallatin, S. H. Macomber, Appl. Opt. 27, 4475 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. J. de Groot, G. M. Gallatin, Opt. Lett. 14, 165 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. K. Koelink, M. Slot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 120 (1991).
  7. Z. M. Chuang, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1200 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. W. Fleming, A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 44 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Cohen, F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 982 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Kawaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 193 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, N. K. Dutta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 597 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. J. de Groot, J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1199 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Self-mixing interference in diode lasers: experimental and theoretical analysis,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

1991 (2)

M. K. Koelink, M. Slot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 120 (1991).

H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Kawaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 193 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

P. J. de Groot, J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Chuang, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cohen, F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 982 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, N. K. Dutta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 597 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. W. Fleming, A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

M. J. Rudd, J. Phys. E 1, 723 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

M. K. Koelink, M. Slot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 120 (1991).

H. W. Jentink, F. F. M. de Mul, H. E. Suichies, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. Greve, Appl. Opt. 27, 379 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, N. K. Dutta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 597 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, W. J. O.

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Self-mixing interference in diode lasers: experimental and theoretical analysis,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Chuang, Z. M.

Z. M. Chuang, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. A.

Z. M. Chuang, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, J. S.

J. S. Cohen, F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 982 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Z. M. Chuang, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dassel, A. C. M.

M. K. Koelink, M. Slot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 120 (1991).

de Groot, P. J.

de Mul, F. F. M.

M. K. Koelink, M. Slot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 120 (1991).

H. W. Jentink, F. F. M. de Mul, H. E. Suichies, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. Greve, Appl. Opt. 27, 379 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutta, N. K.

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, N. K. Dutta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 597 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, M. W.

M. W. Fleming, A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gallatin, G. M.

Graaff, R.

M. K. Koelink, M. Slot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 120 (1991).

Grattan, K. T. V.

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Self-mixing interference in diode lasers: experimental and theoretical analysis,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Greve, J.

M. K. Koelink, M. Slot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 120 (1991).

H. W. Jentink, F. F. M. de Mul, H. E. Suichies, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. Greve, Appl. Opt. 27, 379 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogerland, M. D.

J. S. Cohen, F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 982 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jentink, H. W.

Kawaguchi, H.

H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Kawaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 193 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koelink, M. K.

M. K. Koelink, M. Slot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 120 (1991).

Macomber, S. H.

Mochizuki, A.

Mooradian, A.

M. W. Fleming, A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, N. K. Dutta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 597 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, A. W.

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Self-mixing interference in diode lasers: experimental and theoretical analysis,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Rudd, M. J.

M. J. Rudd, J. Phys. E 1, 723 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Shinohara, S.

Slot, M.

M. K. Koelink, M. Slot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 120 (1991).

Suichies, H. E.

Sumi, M.

Wang, W. M.

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Self-mixing interference in diode lasers: experimental and theoretical analysis,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Wittgrefe, F.

J. S. Cohen, F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 982 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

J. S. Cohen, F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 982 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yasaka, H.

H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Kawaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 193 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

Yoshikuni, Y.

H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Kawaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 193 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, N. K. Dutta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 597 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

Z. M. Chuang, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Fleming, A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cohen, F. Wittgrefe, M. D. Hoogerland, J. P. Woerdman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 982 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, H. Kawaguchi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 193 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. J. de Groot, J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

M. J. Rudd, J. Phys. E 1, 723 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

M. K. Koelink, M. Slot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 120 (1991).

Other (1)

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Self-mixing interference in diode lasers: experimental and theoretical analysis,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a diode laser with external optical feedback. r1, r2, laser facet amplitude reflectivities; r3, target amplitude reflectivity; G, single-pass gain transfer function; n, effective refractive index of gain medium; E1, E2, electric fields of the light signals; D, external cavity distance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement for self-mixing LDV. LD, laser diode; BS, beam splitter; L1, L2, lenses; OS, oscilloscope; SA, spectrum analyzer; A, amplifier; PM, power meter; SM, single mode; RD, rotating disk.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output spectra: (a) Doppler spectrum produced by Doppler-shifted frequency, (b) noise spectrum without rotation of the target. Vertical logarithmic scale, arbitrary units [same for (a) and (b)]; horizontal scale, 0.5 MHz per division [same for (a) and (b)]; central peak, zero frequency (dc) [same for (a) and (b)].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured velocity of rotation disk dependence on the Doppler-shifted frequency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Higher harmonics of Doppler-shifted frequency in self-mixing spectrum. Vertical logarithmic scale, arbitrary units; horizontal scale, 0.1 MHz per division and with video filter of 10 Hz; central peak, zero frequency (dc).

Equations (4)

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I ( t ) I o [ 1 + ( D ξ / n l ) cos ϕ ( t ) ] 2 ,
I ( t ) I o [ 1 + v cos ( 2 π f d t + ϕ o ) ] ,
V = ( λ o / 2 n cos θ ) f d = k f d ,
V ( mm / s ) = 1.05 f d ( kHz ) ± 7.80 ( mm / s ) .

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