Abstract

In certain crystals, photorefractive two-beam coupling is predicted for orthogonally polarized optical beams. The prediction follows from the phenomenological tensor form of the photogalvanic current. We demonstrate this coupling by measuring the complex beam-coupling coefficient in barium titanate and show that the photogalvanic current correctly predicts the form for the coefficient as a function of the beam crossing angle.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Starkiewicz, L. Sosnowski, O. Simpson, Nature (London) 158, 26 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. G. Ellis, E. E. Loebner, W. J. Merz, C. W. Struck, J. G. White, Phys. Rev. 109, 180 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. I. Belinicher, V. K. Malinovski, B. I. Sturman, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 73, 692 (1977).
  6. B. Sturman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1333 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1985).
  8. R. von Baltz, Ferroelectrics 35, 131 (1981); H. G. Festl, P. Hertel, E. Krätzig, R. von Baltz, Phys. Status Solidi B 113, 157 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. É. M. Avakyan, K. G. Belabaev, S. G. Odoulov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 1887 (1983).
  10. S. Odoulov, K. Belabaev, I. Kiseleva, Opt. Lett. 10, 31(1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. B 52, 317 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, Appl. Phys. B 53, 1 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. D. Ewbank, P. Yeh, J. Feinberg, Opt. Commun. 59, 423 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. A. Brost, R. A. Motes, J. R. Rotge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1879 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. B 52, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, Appl. Phys. B 53, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

M. D. Ewbank, P. Yeh, J. Feinberg, Opt. Commun. 59, 423 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

É. M. Avakyan, K. G. Belabaev, S. G. Odoulov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 1887 (1983).

1981 (1)

R. von Baltz, Ferroelectrics 35, 131 (1981); H. G. Festl, P. Hertel, E. Krätzig, R. von Baltz, Phys. Status Solidi B 113, 157 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

V. I. Belinicher, V. K. Malinovski, B. I. Sturman, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 73, 692 (1977).

1974 (1)

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

S. G. Ellis, E. E. Loebner, W. J. Merz, C. W. Struck, J. G. White, Phys. Rev. 109, 180 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

J. Starkiewicz, L. Sosnowski, O. Simpson, Nature (London) 158, 26 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Avakyan, É. M.

É. M. Avakyan, K. G. Belabaev, S. G. Odoulov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 1887 (1983).

Bacher, G. D.

Bass, M.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Belabaev, K.

Belabaev, K. G.

É. M. Avakyan, K. G. Belabaev, S. G. Odoulov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 1887 (1983).

Belinicher, V. I.

V. I. Belinicher, V. K. Malinovski, B. I. Sturman, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 73, 692 (1977).

Brost, G. A.

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cudney, R. S.

Ellis, S. G.

S. G. Ellis, E. E. Loebner, W. J. Merz, C. W. Struck, J. G. White, Phys. Rev. 109, 180 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ewbank, M. D.

M. D. Ewbank, P. Yeh, J. Feinberg, Opt. Commun. 59, 423 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Franken, P. A.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Holtmann, L.

L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, Appl. Phys. B 53, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. B 52, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kiseleva, I.

Krätzig, E.

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. B 52, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, Appl. Phys. B 53, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Loebner, E. E.

S. G. Ellis, E. E. Loebner, W. J. Merz, C. W. Struck, J. G. White, Phys. Rev. 109, 180 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Malinovski, V. K.

V. I. Belinicher, V. K. Malinovski, B. I. Sturman, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 73, 692 (1977).

Merz, W. J.

S. G. Ellis, E. E. Loebner, W. J. Merz, C. W. Struck, J. G. White, Phys. Rev. 109, 180 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Motes, R. A.

Negran, T. J.

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1985).

Odoulov, S.

L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, Appl. Phys. B 53, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. B 52, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, K. Belabaev, I. Kiseleva, Opt. Lett. 10, 31(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odoulov, S. G.

É. M. Avakyan, K. G. Belabaev, S. G. Odoulov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 1887 (1983).

Pierce, R. M.

Rotge, J. R.

Simpson, O.

J. Starkiewicz, L. Sosnowski, O. Simpson, Nature (London) 158, 26 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Sosnowski, L.

J. Starkiewicz, L. Sosnowski, O. Simpson, Nature (London) 158, 26 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Starkiewicz, J.

J. Starkiewicz, L. Sosnowski, O. Simpson, Nature (London) 158, 26 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Struck, C. W.

S. G. Ellis, E. E. Loebner, W. J. Merz, C. W. Struck, J. G. White, Phys. Rev. 109, 180 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Sturman, B.

B. Sturman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. B 52, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sturman, B. I.

V. I. Belinicher, V. K. Malinovski, B. I. Sturman, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 73, 692 (1977).

von Baltz, R.

R. von Baltz, Ferroelectrics 35, 131 (1981); H. G. Festl, P. Hertel, E. Krätzig, R. von Baltz, Phys. Status Solidi B 113, 157 (1982).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. F.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Weinreich, G.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

White, J. G.

S. G. Ellis, E. E. Loebner, W. J. Merz, C. W. Struck, J. G. White, Phys. Rev. 109, 180 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

M. D. Ewbank, P. Yeh, J. Feinberg, Opt. Commun. 59, 423 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, Appl. Phys. B 52, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Holtmann, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, Appl. Phys. B 53, 1 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

R. von Baltz, Ferroelectrics 35, 131 (1981); H. G. Festl, P. Hertel, E. Krätzig, R. von Baltz, Phys. Status Solidi B 113, 157 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (London) (1)

J. Starkiewicz, L. Sosnowski, O. Simpson, Nature (London) 158, 26 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. D. Ewbank, P. Yeh, J. Feinberg, Opt. Commun. 59, 423 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. G. Ellis, E. E. Loebner, W. J. Merz, C. W. Struck, J. G. White, Phys. Rev. 109, 180 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

É. M. Avakyan, K. G. Belabaev, S. G. Odoulov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 25, 1887 (1983).

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

V. I. Belinicher, V. K. Malinovski, B. I. Sturman, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 73, 692 (1977).

Other (1)

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1985).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two coherent but orthogonally polarized laser beams cross at an angle θ inside a crystal of BaTiO3. The crystal’s c axis is out of the plane of incidence. The reference beam is labeled r. The probe beam, p, is given an additional phase oscillation by an electro-optic modulator, causing intensity harmonics on the probe as a result of coupling with the reference beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real and imaginary parts of the coupling coefficient g(θ). The data were taken at 19.0°C with λ = 514.5 nm light. The incident reference-beam intensity was 3 W/cm2. The solid curves are fits to Eq. (5); the error bars are within the data points shown.

Equations (6)

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j i pg ( x ) = β i j k E j ( x ) E k * ( x ) ,
j pg ( x ) = e ^ r β 24 E p E r * exp ( i k g · x ) + c . c .
k g = k p - k r = ( ω / c ) [ x ^ ( n e - n o cos θ ) + y ^ n o sin θ ] ,
E ( x ) = - k g [ k g · j pg ( x ) ] σ ( I ) k g 2 1 1 + k g 2 / k 0 2 ,
E p ( l ) = E p ( 0 ) exp ( g l ) ,
g ( θ ) = i ω 3 2 c 3 n e 3 n o 2 r 42 β 24 E r 2 σ ( I ) sin 2 θ k g 2 ( 1 + k g 2 / k 0 2 ) ,

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