Abstract

We report that small particles with diameters of 1–27 μm have moved in the evanescent fields produced by a laser beam. The evanescent field in the experiment was produced in the near field of the surface of a high-refractive-index sapphire prism illuminated by a 1.06-μm YAG laser beam with an incident angle larger than the critical angle. Both polystyrene latex spheres and glass spheres bounced and ran along the surface of the prism when the laser beam was on. The maximum running speed obtained was approximately 20 μm/s. A micrograph of the running particles is shown with plots of the measured velocity versus the incident angle of the laser beam. Applications of this phenomenon are also discussed.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1245 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. N. Buican, M. J. Smyth, H. A. Crissman, G. C. Salzman, C. C. Stewart, J. C. Martin, Appl. Opt. 26, 5311 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 235, 1517 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, Nature (London) 330, 769 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, Nature (London) 338, 514 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W. H. Wright, R. H. Asch, O. Vafa, M. W. Berns, Fertil. Steril. 53, 944 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  11. H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, H. Masuhara, Chem. Lett. 1990, 1479 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. M. Burns, J. M. Fournier, J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Sugiura, S. Kawata, S. Minami, J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 39, 342 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Newton, Optics (Dover, New York, 1979), pp. 193–224 (reprinted from 1730 edition).
  15. N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Harrick Scientific, Ossining, N.Y., 1979).
  16. J. M. Guerra, Appl. Opt. 29, 3741 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 729 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. J. Cook, R. K. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, A. I. Sidorov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2137 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W. H. Wright, R. H. Asch, O. Vafa, M. W. Berns, Fertil. Steril. 53, 944 (1990).
[PubMed]

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, H. Masuhara, Chem. Lett. 1990, 1479 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugiura, S. Kawata, S. Minami, J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 39, 342 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Guerra, Appl. Opt. 29, 3741 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

M. M. Burns, J. M. Fournier, J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, Nature (London) 338, 514 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, A. I. Sidorov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

T. N. Buican, M. J. Smyth, H. A. Crissman, G. C. Salzman, C. C. Stewart, J. C. Martin, Appl. Opt. 26, 5311 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 235, 1517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, Nature (London) 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1245 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

R. J. Cook, R. K. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 729 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Asch, R. H.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W. H. Wright, R. H. Asch, O. Vafa, M. W. Berns, Fertil. Steril. 53, 944 (1990).
[PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, Nature (London) 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 235, 1517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1245 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 729 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Balykin, V. I.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, A. I. Sidorov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, H. C.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, Nature (London) 338, 514 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W. H. Wright, R. H. Asch, O. Vafa, M. W. Berns, Fertil. Steril. 53, 944 (1990).
[PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Blair, D. F.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, Nature (London) 338, 514 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Block, S. M.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, Nature (London) 338, 514 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Buican, T. N.

Burns, M. M.

M. M. Burns, J. M. Fournier, J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

Cook, R. J.

R. J. Cook, R. K. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Crissman, H. A.

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 235, 1517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, Nature (London) 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1245 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, J. M.

M. M. Burns, J. M. Fournier, J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golovchenko, J. A.

M. M. Burns, J. M. Fournier, J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerra, J. M.

Harrick, N. J.

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Harrick Scientific, Ossining, N.Y., 1979).

Hill, R. K.

R. J. Cook, R. K. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

T. Sugiura, S. Kawata, S. Minami, J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 39, 342 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, N.

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, H. Masuhara, Chem. Lett. 1990, 1479 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koshioka, M.

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, H. Masuhara, Chem. Lett. 1990, 1479 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, A. I. Sidorov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J. C.

Masuhara, H.

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, H. Masuhara, Chem. Lett. 1990, 1479 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Minami, S.

T. Sugiura, S. Kawata, S. Minami, J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 39, 342 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, H. Masuhara, Chem. Lett. 1990, 1479 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Newton, I.

I. Newton, Optics (Dover, New York, 1979), pp. 193–224 (reprinted from 1730 edition).

Ord, T.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W. H. Wright, R. H. Asch, O. Vafa, M. W. Berns, Fertil. Steril. 53, 944 (1990).
[PubMed]

Ovchinnikov, Yu. B.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, A. I. Sidorov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salzman, G. C.

Sasaki, K.

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, H. Masuhara, Chem. Lett. 1990, 1479 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sidorov, A. I.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, A. I. Sidorov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smyth, M. J.

Stewart, C. C.

Sugiura, T.

T. Sugiura, S. Kawata, S. Minami, J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 39, 342 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tadir, Y.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W. H. Wright, R. H. Asch, O. Vafa, M. W. Berns, Fertil. Steril. 53, 944 (1990).
[PubMed]

Vafa, O.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W. H. Wright, R. H. Asch, O. Vafa, M. W. Berns, Fertil. Steril. 53, 944 (1990).
[PubMed]

Wright, W. H.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W. H. Wright, R. H. Asch, O. Vafa, M. W. Berns, Fertil. Steril. 53, 944 (1990).
[PubMed]

Yamane, T.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, Nature (London) 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Lett. (1)

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, H. Masuhara, Chem. Lett. 1990, 1479 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fertil. Steril. (1)

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W. H. Wright, R. H. Asch, O. Vafa, M. W. Berns, Fertil. Steril. 53, 944 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Sugiura, S. Kawata, S. Minami, J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 39, 342 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, Nature (London) 330, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, Nature (London) 338, 514 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. J. Cook, R. K. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

M. M. Burns, J. M. Fournier, J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 729 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1245 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, A. I. Sidorov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 235, 1517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

I. Newton, Optics (Dover, New York, 1979), pp. 193–224 (reprinted from 1730 edition).

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Harrick Scientific, Ossining, N.Y., 1979).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of particle movement in an evanescent field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photomicrograph of particle running (a) with an IR cutoff filter and (b) without an IR cutoff filter. The scattering pattern is observed in the head of the particle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of the velocity of the particle running versus the incident angle.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F = P / c n ,

Metrics