Abstract

High-brightness and short-pulse-width (~200 ps) x-ray lasers offer biologists the possibility of high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of specimens in an aqueous environment without the blurring effects associated with natural motions. As a first step toward developing the capabilities of this type of x-ray microscopy we have used a tantalum x-ray laser (λ = 4.483 nm) together with an x-ray zone plate lens to image a test pattern. The observed image shows a detector-limited resolution of approximately 75 nm and paves the way to three-dimensional biological imaging with high spatial resolution (20–30 nm).

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds., X-Ray Microscopy III (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991); G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Lasers 1990, G. J. Tallents, ed. (Institute of Physics, York, UK, 1990), pp. 271–277.
  2. D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, Science 196, 1339 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
  5. C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M. T. Browne, C. J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang, “Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).
  6. N. Ceglio, X-ray Sci. Technol. 1, 1 (1989); T. W. Barbee, Phys. Scripta T31, 147 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Attwood, K. Halbach, K. Kim, Science 288, 1265 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Anderson, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
  9. R. London, in X-Ray Microimaging for the Life Sciences, D. Attwood, B. Bartons, eds., Rep. LBL-27660 (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1989).
  10. R. Kauffman, in Handbook of Plasma Physics. Vol. 3: Physics of Laser Plasmas, M. Rosenbluth, R. Sagdeev, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), p. 111.
  11. T. Tomie, H. Shimizu, T. Majima, M. Yamada, T. Kanayama, H. Kondo, M. Yano, M. Ono, Science 252, 691 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. G. J. Tallents, ed., X-Ray Lasers 1990 (Institute of Physics, York, UK, 1990).
  13. C. H. Skinner, D. S. DiCicco, D. Kim, R. J. Rosser, S. Suckewer, A. P. Gupta, J. G. Hirschberg, J. Microsc. 159, 51 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. G. Michette, Optical Systems for Soft X Rays (Plenum, New York, 1986).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Albrecht, G. Hodges, eds., Biotechnology and Bioapplications of Colloidal Gold (Scanning Micros-copy International, Chicago, Ill., 1987).
  17. R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, J. E. Trebes, Appl. Opt. 28, 3397 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

T. Tomie, H. Shimizu, T. Majima, M. Yamada, T. Kanayama, H. Kondo, M. Yano, M. Ono, Science 252, 691 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

C. H. Skinner, D. S. DiCicco, D. Kim, R. J. Rosser, S. Suckewer, A. P. Gupta, J. G. Hirschberg, J. Microsc. 159, 51 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, J. E. Trebes, Appl. Opt. 28, 3397 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ceglio, X-ray Sci. Technol. 1, 1 (1989); T. W. Barbee, Phys. Scripta T31, 147 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

D. Attwood, K. Halbach, K. Kim, Science 288, 1265 (1985).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, Science 196, 1339 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ade, H.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, E.

W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M. T. Browne, C. J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang, “Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

E. Anderson, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

Attwood, D.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Attwood, K. Halbach, K. Kim, Science 288, 1265 (1985).
[Crossref]

W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

Batson, P.

W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

Browne, M. T.

C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M. T. Browne, C. J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang, “Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Buckley, C. J.

C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M. T. Browne, C. J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang, “Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Ceglio, N.

N. Ceglio, X-ray Sci. Technol. 1, 1 (1989); T. W. Barbee, Phys. Scripta T31, 147 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chang, T. H. P.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiCicco, D. S.

C. H. Skinner, D. S. DiCicco, D. Kim, R. J. Rosser, S. Suckewer, A. P. Gupta, J. G. Hirschberg, J. Microsc. 159, 51 (1990).
[Crossref]

Feder, R.

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, Science 196, 1339 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fields, D. J.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grendell, J.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, A. P.

C. H. Skinner, D. S. DiCicco, D. Kim, R. J. Rosser, S. Suckewer, A. P. Gupta, J. G. Hirschberg, J. Microsc. 159, 51 (1990).
[Crossref]

Guttmann, P.

W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

Halbach, K.

D. Attwood, K. Halbach, K. Kim, Science 288, 1265 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hirschberg, J. G.

C. H. Skinner, D. S. DiCicco, D. Kim, R. J. Rosser, S. Suckewer, A. P. Gupta, J. G. Hirschberg, J. Microsc. 159, 51 (1990).
[Crossref]

Iskader, N.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iskander, N.

W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

Jacobsen, C.

C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M. T. Browne, C. J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang, “Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Kanayama, T.

T. Tomie, H. Shimizu, T. Majima, M. Yamada, T. Kanayama, H. Kondo, M. Yano, M. Ono, Science 252, 691 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauffman, R.

R. Kauffman, in Handbook of Plasma Physics. Vol. 3: Physics of Laser Plasmas, M. Rosenbluth, R. Sagdeev, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), p. 111.

Keane, C. J.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kern, D.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M. T. Browne, C. J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang, “Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

E. Anderson, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

Kim, D.

C. H. Skinner, D. S. DiCicco, D. Kim, R. J. Rosser, S. Suckewer, A. P. Gupta, J. G. Hirschberg, J. Microsc. 159, 51 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. M.

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, Science 196, 1339 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

D. Attwood, K. Halbach, K. Kim, Science 288, 1265 (1985).
[Crossref]

Kirz, J.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, Science 196, 1339 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M. T. Browne, C. J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang, “Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Kondo, H.

T. Tomie, H. Shimizu, T. Majima, M. Yamada, T. Kanayama, H. Kondo, M. Yano, M. Ono, Science 252, 691 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

London, R.

R. London, in X-Ray Microimaging for the Life Sciences, D. Attwood, B. Bartons, eds., Rep. LBL-27660 (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1989).

London, R. A.

MacGowan, B. J.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majima, T.

T. Tomie, H. Shimizu, T. Majima, M. Yamada, T. Kanayama, H. Kondo, M. Yano, M. Ono, Science 252, 691 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matthews, D. L.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maxon, S.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McQuaid, K.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer-IIse, W.

W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

Michette, A. G.

A. G. Michette, Optical Systems for Soft X Rays (Plenum, New York, 1986).
[Crossref]

Ono, M.

T. Tomie, H. Shimizu, T. Majima, M. Yamada, T. Kanayama, H. Kondo, M. Yano, M. Ono, Science 252, 691 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osterheld, A. L.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rarback, H.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivers, M.

C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M. T. Browne, C. J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang, “Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Rosen, M. D.

Rosser, R. J.

C. H. Skinner, D. S. DiCicco, D. Kim, R. J. Rosser, S. Suckewer, A. P. Gupta, J. G. Hirschberg, J. Microsc. 159, 51 (1990).
[Crossref]

Rothman, S. S.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudolph, D.

W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

Sayre, D.

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, Science 196, 1339 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmahl, G.

W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

Scofield, J. H.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimizu, H.

T. Tomie, H. Shimizu, T. Majima, M. Yamada, T. Kanayama, H. Kondo, M. Yano, M. Ono, Science 252, 691 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimkaveg, G.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silva, L. B. D.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skinner, C. H.

C. H. Skinner, D. S. DiCicco, D. Kim, R. J. Rosser, S. Suckewer, A. P. Gupta, J. G. Hirschberg, J. Microsc. 159, 51 (1990).
[Crossref]

Spiller, E.

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, Science 196, 1339 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, G. F.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suckewer, S.

C. H. Skinner, D. S. DiCicco, D. Kim, R. J. Rosser, S. Suckewer, A. P. Gupta, J. G. Hirschberg, J. Microsc. 159, 51 (1990).
[Crossref]

Thieme, J.

W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

Tomie, T.

T. Tomie, H. Shimizu, T. Majima, M. Yamada, T. Kanayama, H. Kondo, M. Yano, M. Ono, Science 252, 691 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trebes, J. E.

Vladimirsky, Y.

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, S.

C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M. T. Browne, C. J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang, “Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Yamada, M.

T. Tomie, H. Shimizu, T. Majima, M. Yamada, T. Kanayama, H. Kondo, M. Yano, M. Ono, Science 252, 691 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yano, M.

T. Tomie, H. Shimizu, T. Majima, M. Yamada, T. Kanayama, H. Kondo, M. Yano, M. Ono, Science 252, 691 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M. T. Browne, C. J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang, “Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

S. S. Rothman, N. Iskader, D. Attwood, Y. Vladimirsky, K. McQuaid, J. Grendell, J. Kirz, H. Ade, I. McNulty, D. Kern, T. H. P. Chang, H. Rarback, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 991, 484 (1989); A. L. Robinson, Science 237, 723 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

C. H. Skinner, D. S. DiCicco, D. Kim, R. J. Rosser, S. Suckewer, A. P. Gupta, J. G. Hirschberg, J. Microsc. 159, 51 (1990).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. D. Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

T. Tomie, H. Shimizu, T. Majima, M. Yamada, T. Kanayama, H. Kondo, M. Yano, M. Ono, Science 252, 691 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, Science 196, 1339 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Attwood, K. Halbach, K. Kim, Science 288, 1265 (1985).
[Crossref]

X-ray Sci. Technol. (1)

N. Ceglio, X-ray Sci. Technol. 1, 1 (1989); T. W. Barbee, Phys. Scripta T31, 147 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

G. J. Tallents, ed., X-Ray Lasers 1990 (Institute of Physics, York, UK, 1990).

A. G. Michette, Optical Systems for Soft X Rays (Plenum, New York, 1986).
[Crossref]

R. Albrecht, G. Hodges, eds., Biotechnology and Bioapplications of Colloidal Gold (Scanning Micros-copy International, Chicago, Ill., 1987).

E. Anderson, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

R. London, in X-Ray Microimaging for the Life Sciences, D. Attwood, B. Bartons, eds., Rep. LBL-27660 (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1989).

R. Kauffman, in Handbook of Plasma Physics. Vol. 3: Physics of Laser Plasmas, M. Rosenbluth, R. Sagdeev, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), p. 111.

A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds., X-Ray Microscopy III (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991); G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Lasers 1990, G. J. Tallents, ed. (Institute of Physics, York, UK, 1990), pp. 271–277.

W. Meyer-IIse, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, E. Anderson, P. Batson, D. Attwood, N. Iskander, D. Kern, in X-Ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, C. Buckley, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).

C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M. T. Browne, C. J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers, X. Zhang, “Diffraction-limited imaging in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the x-ray microscope showing the main components.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images obtained of a resolution test pattern when using (a) a tantalum x-ray laser as the illuminator and (b) continuum emission centered at 4.483 nm and λλ = 70. Only part of the test pattern is observed in (a) because the x-ray laser source region is smaller than the continuum emitting region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MTF of the microscope system. The solid curve and the error bars were calculated from the image in Fig. 2(a). The dashed curve is the theoretical MTF that combines the MTF’s of the zone plate and the microchannel plate detector.

Metrics