Abstract

We report the growth and characterization of a new photorefractive material, potassium lithium tantalate niobate (KLTN). A KLTN crystal doped with copper is demonstrated to yield high diffraction efficiency of photorefractive gratings in the paraelectric phase. Voltage-controllable index gratings with n1, = 8.5 × 10−5 were achieved, which yielded diffraction efficiencies of 75% in a 2.9-mm-thick sample. In addition, diffraction was observed in the paraelectric phase without an applied field. This effect is attributed to a growth-induced strain field.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. J. Van Heerden, Appl. Opt. 2, 393 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Gabor, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 156 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Von der Linde, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. 8, 85 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Yacoby, A. Linz, Phys. Rev. B 9, 2723 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Van der Klink, D. Rytz, J. Cryst. Growth 56, 673 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Agranat, V. Leyva, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 14, 1017 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kraetzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Sayano, Accuwave, Santa Monica, Calif. 90404 (personal communication, 1990).
  9. R. L. Prater, L. L. Chase, L. A. Boatner, Phys. Rev. B 23, 5904 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. M. Perry, R. R. Hayes, N. E. Tornberg, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Light Scattering in Solids, M. Balkansky, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 812.
  11. A. Agranat, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, in Digest of Meeting on Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper PD-1.
  12. V. Leyva, Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1991).

1989 (1)

1982 (1)

J. J. Van der Klink, D. Rytz, J. Cryst. Growth 56, 673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. L. Prater, L. L. Chase, L. A. Boatner, Phys. Rev. B 23, 5904 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kraetzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. Von der Linde, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. 8, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Y. Yacoby, A. Linz, Phys. Rev. B 9, 2723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

D. Gabor, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

Agranat, A.

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 14, 1017 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agranat, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, in Digest of Meeting on Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper PD-1.

Boatner, L. A.

R. L. Prater, L. L. Chase, L. A. Boatner, Phys. Rev. B 23, 5904 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kraetzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

R. L. Prater, L. L. Chase, L. A. Boatner, Phys. Rev. B 23, 5904 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

D. Von der Linde, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. 8, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, R. R.

C. M. Perry, R. R. Hayes, N. E. Tornberg, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Light Scattering in Solids, M. Balkansky, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 812.

Kraetzig, E.

R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kraetzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 14, 1017 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Leyva, Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1991).

Linz, A.

Y. Yacoby, A. Linz, Phys. Rev. B 9, 2723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Orlowski, R.

R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kraetzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Perry, C. M.

C. M. Perry, R. R. Hayes, N. E. Tornberg, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Light Scattering in Solids, M. Balkansky, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 812.

Prater, R. L.

R. L. Prater, L. L. Chase, L. A. Boatner, Phys. Rev. B 23, 5904 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rytz, D.

J. J. Van der Klink, D. Rytz, J. Cryst. Growth 56, 673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sayano, K.

A. Agranat, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, in Digest of Meeting on Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper PD-1.

K. Sayano, Accuwave, Santa Monica, Calif. 90404 (personal communication, 1990).

Tornberg, N. E.

C. M. Perry, R. R. Hayes, N. E. Tornberg, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Light Scattering in Solids, M. Balkansky, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 812.

Van der Klink, J. J.

J. J. Van der Klink, D. Rytz, J. Cryst. Growth 56, 673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Van Heerden, P. J.

Von der Linde, D.

D. Von der Linde, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. 8, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yacoby, Y.

Y. Yacoby, A. Linz, Phys. Rev. B 9, 2723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 14, 1017 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agranat, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, in Digest of Meeting on Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper PD-1.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Von der Linde, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. 8, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

D. Gabor, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. J. Van der Klink, D. Rytz, J. Cryst. Growth 56, 673 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kraetzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

Y. Yacoby, A. Linz, Phys. Rev. B 9, 2723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Prater, L. L. Chase, L. A. Boatner, Phys. Rev. B 23, 5904 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. M. Perry, R. R. Hayes, N. E. Tornberg, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Light Scattering in Solids, M. Balkansky, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 812.

A. Agranat, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, in Digest of Meeting on Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper PD-1.

V. Leyva, Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1991).

K. Sayano, Accuwave, Santa Monica, Calif. 90404 (personal communication, 1990).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of the as-grown KLTN:Cu.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dielectric constant of the KLT0.857N0.129. The phase transition is ~50 K higher than in a comparable KTN. (b) Dielectric constant of KT0.86N0.13.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for measurement of diffraction efficiency. Photorefractive crystal Xtl is mounted in a vacuum cryostat. Beam splitter BS and mirrors M1 and M2 create a 488-nm grating that is read with the Bragg-matched 633-nm beam and mirror M3. Diffraction is measured versus applied voltage Vo. The temperature was monitored by thermocouple T.C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-beam diffraction efficiency for gratings written at +1450, 0, and −1450 V/cm.

Equations (2)

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Δ n = n 0 3 2 g P 2 , P = 0 ( - 1 ) E ,
n 1 Δ n [ E 0 + E sc ( x ) ] - Δ n ( E 0 ) n 0 3 2 g 0 2 2 [ 2 E 0 E sc ( x ) + E sc 2 ( x ) ] n 1 eff = n 0 3 g 0 2 2 E 0 E sc ( x ) ,

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