Abstract

The effects of three-photon absorption on nonlinear directional coupling in semiconductors below half the gap are studied for both cw and sech2 pulse signals. The figure of merit associated with three-photon absorption includes not only material properties but also device design parameters. Numerical results show that at high powers, three-photon absorption significantly degrades nonlinear coupling, reduces throughput, and distorts output pulses. Good agreement is found between the theoretical model and experimental data.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, Opt. Lett. 14, 1140 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2063 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 27, 1709 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. R. J. Levy, W. S. Hobson, M. J. Young, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.
  7. S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolich, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2558 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
  9. S. M. Jensen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Kitayama, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 17 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (3)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 27, 1709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolich, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2558 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2063 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1982 (2)

S. M. Jensen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitayama, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 27, 1709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Andrejco, M. J.

DeLong, K. W.

K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2063 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, Opt. Lett. 14, 1140 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolich, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2558 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, W. S.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolich, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2558 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. R. J. Levy, W. S. Hobson, M. J. Young, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Hutchings, D. C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ironside, C. N.

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 27, 1709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Islam, M. N.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolich, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2558 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. R. J. Levy, W. S. Hobson, M. J. Young, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Jensen, S. M.

S. M. Jensen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kean, A. H.

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 27, 1709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Kitayama, K.

K. Kitayama, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolich, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2558 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Levy, A. R. J.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. R. J. Levy, W. S. Hobson, M. J. Young, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Mizrahi, V.

Rochford, K. B.

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Saifi, M. A.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolich, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2558 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. R. J. Levy, W. S. Hobson, M. J. Young, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Soccolich, C. E.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolich, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2558 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. R. J. Levy, W. S. Hobson, M. J. Young, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Stegeman, G. I.

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 27, 1709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2063 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, Opt. Lett. 14, 1140 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 27, 1709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Wang, S.

K. Kitayama, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wigley, P. G. J.

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Yang, C. C.

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Young, M. J.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. R. J. Levy, W. S. Hobson, M. J. Young, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2063 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolich, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2558 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitayama, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 27, 1709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jensen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. R. J. Levy, W. S. Hobson, M. J. Young, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized transmission in the bar state (solid curves) and throughput (dashed curves) versus the normalized cw input power in a half-beat-length NLDC. For both solid and dashed curves, V increases from top to bottom as V = 0, 0.08, 0.175, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, and 1.58, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized transmission in the bar state (dashed curve, left scale) and switching power (solid curve, right scale) versus V for cw inputs in a half-beat-length NLDC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized transmission in the bar state versus the input peak intensity, normalized by the cw critical intensity, of a sech2 input pulse in a NLDC of 0.84 half beat length. The solid curves (T = 0; from top to bottom V = 0, 0.1784, and 0.8) and the long-dashed curve (V = 0.1784 and T = 0.22) are drawn versus the normalized peak intensity at the beginning of the coupler. The short-dashed curve (V = 0.1784 and T = 0.22) fits the experimental data well with the horizontal scale representing the input intensity in the leading section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulse shapes in the bar state with a sech2 input pulse in a half-beat-length NLDC. V = 0, 0.08, 0.24, and 0.8, respectively, from the top to the bottom. The input peak power (at the beginning of the coupler) is three times the cw critical power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as in Fig. 4 except for the cross state with V = 0, 0.24, and 0.8.

Equations (2)

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i A 1 , 2 z + 2 π a 2 n 2 λ ( 1 + i T 8 π ) A 1 , 2 2 A 1 , 2 + i β 3 a 3 2 A 1 , 2 4 A 1 , 2 + K A 2 , 1 = 0.
i q 1 , 2 ζ + ( 1 + i T 8 π ) q 1 , 2 2 q 1 , 2 + i V 8 π 2 q 1 , 2 4 q 1 , 2 + π 2 q 2 , 1 = 0.

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