Abstract

The pulse-formation process in a femtosecond passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with a saturable absorber is investigated. The time to reach the steady state is ~200 μs. The formation time dependence on the dye concentration and the coincidence of the steady-state pulse width with the self-mode-locked state without a saturable absorber indicate that the function of the saturable absorber is mainly to induce the initial modulation and to shorten the pulse-formation time.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, D. J. Roach, M. S. Keirstead, H. W. Schaaf, T. Baer, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 66.
    [Crossref]
  2. P. M. W. French, J. A. R. Williams, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 14, 686 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Goodberlet, J. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, P. A. Schulz, Opt. Lett. 14, 1125 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 814 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  5. U. Keller, W. H. Knox, H. Roskos, Opt. Lett. 15, 1377 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, W. Sibbett, Opt. Lett. 16, 42 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, T. Yanagawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Ishida, N. Sarukura, H. Nakano, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 75; N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Opt. Lett. 16, 153 (1991); Y. Ishida, N. Sarukura, H. Nakano, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMB2.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Piché, N. McCarthy, F. Salin, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper MB8.
  10. L. Spinelli, B. Couillaud, N. Goldblatt, D. K. Negus, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP7.
  11. G. Gabetta, D. Huang, J. Jacobson, M. Ramaswamy, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP8.
  12. C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, A. J. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 16, 1180 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. A. Haus, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMA1.
  14. J. D. Kafka, T. Baer, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMA2.
  15. See, for example, V. Petrov, W. Rudolph, B. Wilhelmi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 377 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. A. R. Williams, P. M. W French, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1434 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. C. Kuo, C. L. Pan, Opt. Lett. 15, 1297 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Goodberlet, J. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, P. A. Schulz, Opt. Lett. 15, 1300 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Opt. Commun. 77, 49 (1990).
    [Crossref]

1991 (2)

1990 (7)

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, T. Yanagawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229 (1990).
[Crossref]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 814 (1990).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, W. H. Knox, H. Roskos, Opt. Lett. 15, 1377 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. R. Williams, P. M. W French, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1434 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. C. Kuo, C. L. Pan, Opt. Lett. 15, 1297 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Goodberlet, J. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, P. A. Schulz, Opt. Lett. 15, 1300 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Opt. Commun. 77, 49 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

1987 (1)

See, for example, V. Petrov, W. Rudolph, B. Wilhelmi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 377 (1987).
[Crossref]

Baer, T.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, D. J. Roach, M. S. Keirstead, H. W. Schaaf, T. Baer, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 66.
[Crossref]

J. D. Kafka, T. Baer, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMA2.

Brabec, T.

Couillaud, B.

L. Spinelli, B. Couillaud, N. Goldblatt, D. K. Negus, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP7.

French, P. M. W

J. A. R. Williams, P. M. W French, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1434 (1990).
[Crossref]

French, P. M. W.

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. Goodberlet, J. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, P. A. Schulz, Opt. Lett. 15, 1300 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Goodberlet, J. Wang, J. G. Fujimoto, P. A. Schulz, Opt. Lett. 14, 1125 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gabetta, D. Huang, J. Jacobson, M. Ramaswamy, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP8.

Gabetta, G.

G. Gabetta, D. Huang, J. Jacobson, M. Ramaswamy, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP8.

Goldblatt, N.

L. Spinelli, B. Couillaud, N. Goldblatt, D. K. Negus, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP7.

Goodberlet, J.

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMA1.

G. Gabetta, D. Huang, J. Jacobson, M. Ramaswamy, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP8.

Huang, D.

G. Gabetta, D. Huang, J. Jacobson, M. Ramaswamy, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP8.

Ippen, E. P.

G. Gabetta, D. Huang, J. Jacobson, M. Ramaswamy, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP8.

Ishida, Y.

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 814 (1990).
[Crossref]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, T. Yanagawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229 (1990).
[Crossref]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Opt. Commun. 77, 49 (1990).
[Crossref]

Y. Ishida, N. Sarukura, H. Nakano, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 75; N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Opt. Lett. 16, 153 (1991); Y. Ishida, N. Sarukura, H. Nakano, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMB2.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobson, J.

G. Gabetta, D. Huang, J. Jacobson, M. Ramaswamy, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP8.

Kafka, J. D.

J. D. Kafka, T. Baer, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMA2.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, D. J. Roach, M. S. Keirstead, H. W. Schaaf, T. Baer, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 66.
[Crossref]

Kean, P. N.

Keirstead, M. S.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, D. J. Roach, M. S. Keirstead, H. W. Schaaf, T. Baer, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 66.
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

Knox, W. H.

Krausz, F.

Kuo, J. C.

McCarthy, N.

M. Piché, N. McCarthy, F. Salin, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper MB8.

Nakano, H.

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 814 (1990).
[Crossref]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, T. Yanagawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229 (1990).
[Crossref]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Opt. Commun. 77, 49 (1990).
[Crossref]

Y. Ishida, N. Sarukura, H. Nakano, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 75; N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Opt. Lett. 16, 153 (1991); Y. Ishida, N. Sarukura, H. Nakano, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMB2.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Negus, D. K.

L. Spinelli, B. Couillaud, N. Goldblatt, D. K. Negus, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP7.

Pan, C. L.

Petrov, V.

See, for example, V. Petrov, W. Rudolph, B. Wilhelmi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 377 (1987).
[Crossref]

Piché, M.

M. Piché, N. McCarthy, F. Salin, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper MB8.

Ramaswamy, M.

G. Gabetta, D. Huang, J. Jacobson, M. Ramaswamy, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP8.

Roach, D. J.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, D. J. Roach, M. S. Keirstead, H. W. Schaaf, T. Baer, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 66.
[Crossref]

Roskos, H.

Rudolph, W.

See, for example, V. Petrov, W. Rudolph, B. Wilhelmi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 377 (1987).
[Crossref]

Salin, F.

M. Piché, N. McCarthy, F. Salin, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper MB8.

Sarukura, N.

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, T. Yanagawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229 (1990).
[Crossref]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 814 (1990).
[Crossref]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Opt. Commun. 77, 49 (1990).
[Crossref]

Y. Ishida, N. Sarukura, H. Nakano, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 75; N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Opt. Lett. 16, 153 (1991); Y. Ishida, N. Sarukura, H. Nakano, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMB2.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaaf, H. W.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, D. J. Roach, M. S. Keirstead, H. W. Schaaf, T. Baer, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 66.
[Crossref]

Schmidt, A. J.

Schulz, P. A.

Sibbett, W.

Spence, D. E.

Spielmann, C.

Spinelli, L.

L. Spinelli, B. Couillaud, N. Goldblatt, D. K. Negus, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP7.

Taylor, J. R.

J. A. R. Williams, P. M. W French, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1434 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. M. W. French, J. A. R. Williams, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 14, 686 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Watts, M. L.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, D. J. Roach, M. S. Keirstead, H. W. Schaaf, T. Baer, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 66.
[Crossref]

Wilhelmi, B.

See, for example, V. Petrov, W. Rudolph, B. Wilhelmi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 377 (1987).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Williams, P. M. W French, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1434 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. M. W. French, J. A. R. Williams, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 14, 686 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wintner, E.

Yamamoto, Y.

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 814 (1990).
[Crossref]

Yanagawa, T.

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, T. Yanagawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229 (1990).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 814 (1990).
[Crossref]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, T. Yanagawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. R. Williams, P. M. W French, J. R. Taylor, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1434 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Opt. Commun. 77, 49 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

See, for example, V. Petrov, W. Rudolph, B. Wilhelmi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 377 (1987).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, D. J. Roach, M. S. Keirstead, H. W. Schaaf, T. Baer, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 66.
[Crossref]

Y. Ishida, N. Sarukura, H. Nakano, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 75; N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, H. Nakano, Opt. Lett. 16, 153 (1991); Y. Ishida, N. Sarukura, H. Nakano, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMB2.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Piché, N. McCarthy, F. Salin, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper MB8.

L. Spinelli, B. Couillaud, N. Goldblatt, D. K. Negus, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP7.

G. Gabetta, D. Huang, J. Jacobson, M. Ramaswamy, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP8.

H. A. Haus, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMA1.

J. D. Kafka, T. Baer, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JMA2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the measurement of the pulse evolution in a passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. The repetition rate of the laser was adjusted to 91 MHz for operation with and without a prism pair. An output coupler with 3.5% transmission and an SF6 glass prism separated by 14 cm for chirp compensation were used. The estimated excess negative group-velocity dispersion inside the cavity was −450 ± 200 fs2. The pumping source was a 6-W argon laser (Spectra-Physics Model 2016) operated on all lines. A mechanical chopper was introduced to the cavity of a passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. β-Barium borate (BBO) was used to generate the SH.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Initial evolution of the fundamental output. (a) Mode-locked operation with the dye jet, (b) cw operation without the dye jet. The horizontal divisions are 10 μs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of pulse properties (a) without and (b) with a prism pair for chirp compensation. The upper traces are the fundamental pulse train, the middle traces are the average power, and the lower traces are the SH pulse train. The horizontal divisions are 50 μs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of the spectrum measured by a streak camera (a) without and (b) with a prism pair.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the pulse-formation time (○), the final pulse width (■), and the average power (×) for various dye concentrations. The error bars indicate standard deviations of several traces.

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