Abstract

We report what is to our knowledge the first direct measurement of spatial energy migration among the Tm3+ ions in a Tm,Ho:YAG crystal at room temperature. Four-wave mixing techniques were used to establish and probe transient laser-induced population gratings in the Tm3+ ions. The grating decay rate was measured as a function of the grating spacing. The results show the presence of spatial energy migration among the Tm3+ ions, and the diffusion coefficient of this process was measured to be 4 × 10−7 cm2 s−1 for a sample containing 8.3 × 1020 cm−3 Tm3+ ions.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, D. D. Dlott, M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 131 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, W. K. Zwicker, Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836 (1982); Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1020 (1981); R. C. Powell, J. K. Tyminski, A. M. Ghazzawi, C. M. Lawson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1355 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. P. Morgan, S. Chen, W. M. Yen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1360 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, Opt. Lett. 12, 678 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Huber, P. Mitzscherlich, T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, J. Lumin. 40/41, 509 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. M. Antipenko, V. A. Buchenkov, A. S. Glebov, T. I. Kiseleva, A. A. Nikitichev, V. A. Pismennyi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 64, 772 (1988).
  9. K. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, R. V. Hess, C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, N. P. Barnes, G. W. Henderson, M. R. Kokta, in Digest of Conference on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB3.
  10. J. K. Tyminski, D. M. Franich, M. Kokta, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3181 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Forster, Ann. Phys. 2, 55 (1948); Z. Naturforsch. 49, 321 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Weber, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneidner, L. R. Eyring, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979), Vol. 4, p. 275.
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. E. Erickson, Opt. Commun. 15, 246 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3125 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. M. Kenkre, D. Schmid, Phys. Rev. B 31, 2430 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. For a recent review see G. P. Morgan, W. M. Yen, in Laser Spectroscopy of Solids II, W. M. Yen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 77.
    [CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. K. Tyminski, D. M. Franich, M. Kokta, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3181 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

G. Huber, P. Mitzscherlich, T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, J. Lumin. 40/41, 509 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Antipenko, V. A. Buchenkov, A. S. Glebov, T. I. Kiseleva, A. A. Nikitichev, V. A. Pismennyi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 64, 772 (1988).

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

G. P. Morgan, S. Chen, W. M. Yen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1360 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

V. M. Kenkre, D. Schmid, Phys. Rev. B 31, 2430 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, W. K. Zwicker, Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836 (1982); Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1020 (1981); R. C. Powell, J. K. Tyminski, A. M. Ghazzawi, C. M. Lawson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1355 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, D. D. Dlott, M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 131 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

L. E. Erickson, Opt. Commun. 15, 246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3125 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

T. Forster, Ann. Phys. 2, 55 (1948); Z. Naturforsch. 49, 321 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Antipenko, B. M.

B. M. Antipenko, V. A. Buchenkov, A. S. Glebov, T. I. Kiseleva, A. A. Nikitichev, V. A. Pismennyi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 64, 772 (1988).

Bair, C. H.

K. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, R. V. Hess, C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, N. P. Barnes, G. W. Henderson, M. R. Kokta, in Digest of Conference on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB3.

Barnes, N. P.

K. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, R. V. Hess, C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, N. P. Barnes, G. W. Henderson, M. R. Kokta, in Digest of Conference on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB3.

Brockman, P.

K. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, R. V. Hess, C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, N. P. Barnes, G. W. Henderson, M. R. Kokta, in Digest of Conference on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB3.

Buchenkov, V. A.

B. M. Antipenko, V. A. Buchenkov, A. S. Glebov, T. I. Kiseleva, A. A. Nikitichev, V. A. Pismennyi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 64, 772 (1988).

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, P. Mitzscherlich, T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, J. Lumin. 40/41, 509 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, Opt. Lett. 12, 678 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

G. P. Morgan, S. Chen, W. M. Yen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1360 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. S.

K. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, R. V. Hess, C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, N. P. Barnes, G. W. Henderson, M. R. Kokta, in Digest of Conference on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB3.

Danielmeyer, H. G.

H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3125 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Dlott, D. D.

J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, D. D. Dlott, M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 131 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Duczynski, E. W.

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, L. E.

L. E. Erickson, Opt. Commun. 15, 246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

G. Huber, P. Mitzscherlich, T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, J. Lumin. 40/41, 509 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, Opt. Lett. 12, 678 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fayer, M. D.

J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, D. D. Dlott, M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 131 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Forster, T.

T. Forster, Ann. Phys. 2, 55 (1948); Z. Naturforsch. 49, 321 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Franich, D. M.

J. K. Tyminski, D. M. Franich, M. Kokta, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3181 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, A. S.

B. M. Antipenko, V. A. Buchenkov, A. S. Glebov, T. I. Kiseleva, A. A. Nikitichev, V. A. Pismennyi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 64, 772 (1988).

Henderson, G. W.

K. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, R. V. Hess, C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, N. P. Barnes, G. W. Henderson, M. R. Kokta, in Digest of Conference on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB3.

Hess, R. V.

K. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, R. V. Hess, C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, N. P. Barnes, G. W. Henderson, M. R. Kokta, in Digest of Conference on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB3.

Huber, G.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, P. Mitzscherlich, T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, J. Lumin. 40/41, 509 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, Opt. Lett. 12, 678 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenkre, V. M.

V. M. Kenkre, D. Schmid, Phys. Rev. B 31, 2430 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

K. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, R. V. Hess, C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, N. P. Barnes, G. W. Henderson, M. R. Kokta, in Digest of Conference on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB3.

Kiseleva, T. I.

B. M. Antipenko, V. A. Buchenkov, A. S. Glebov, T. I. Kiseleva, A. A. Nikitichev, V. A. Pismennyi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 64, 772 (1988).

Kokta, M.

J. K. Tyminski, D. M. Franich, M. Kokta, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3181 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kokta, M. R.

K. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, R. V. Hess, C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, N. P. Barnes, G. W. Henderson, M. R. Kokta, in Digest of Conference on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB3.

Lawson, C. M.

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, W. K. Zwicker, Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836 (1982); Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1020 (1981); R. C. Powell, J. K. Tyminski, A. M. Ghazzawi, C. M. Lawson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1355 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mitzscherlich, P.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, P. Mitzscherlich, T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, J. Lumin. 40/41, 509 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, Opt. Lett. 12, 678 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, G. P.

G. P. Morgan, S. Chen, W. M. Yen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1360 (1986).
[CrossRef]

For a recent review see G. P. Morgan, W. M. Yen, in Laser Spectroscopy of Solids II, W. M. Yen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 77.
[CrossRef]

Nikitichev, A. A.

B. M. Antipenko, V. A. Buchenkov, A. S. Glebov, T. I. Kiseleva, A. A. Nikitichev, V. A. Pismennyi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 64, 772 (1988).

Petermann, K.

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pismennyi, V. A.

B. M. Antipenko, V. A. Buchenkov, A. S. Glebov, T. I. Kiseleva, A. A. Nikitichev, V. A. Pismennyi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 64, 772 (1988).

Powell, R. C.

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, W. K. Zwicker, Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836 (1982); Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1020 (1981); R. C. Powell, J. K. Tyminski, A. M. Ghazzawi, C. M. Lawson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1355 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Salcedo, J. R.

J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, D. D. Dlott, M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 131 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, D.

V. M. Kenkre, D. Schmid, Phys. Rev. B 31, 2430 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, D. D. Dlott, M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 131 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tyminski, J. K.

J. K. Tyminski, D. M. Franich, M. Kokta, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3181 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneidner, L. R. Eyring, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979), Vol. 4, p. 275.
[CrossRef]

Yen, W. M.

G. P. Morgan, S. Chen, W. M. Yen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1360 (1986).
[CrossRef]

For a recent review see G. P. Morgan, W. M. Yen, in Laser Spectroscopy of Solids II, W. M. Yen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 77.
[CrossRef]

Zwicker, W. K.

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, W. K. Zwicker, Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836 (1982); Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1020 (1981); R. C. Powell, J. K. Tyminski, A. M. Ghazzawi, C. M. Lawson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1355 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

T. Forster, Ann. Phys. 2, 55 (1948); Z. Naturforsch. 49, 321 (1949).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

G. Huber, E. W. Duczynski, K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 920 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Morgan, S. Chen, W. M. Yen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1360 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. K. Tyminski, D. M. Franich, M. Kokta, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3181 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3125 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

G. Huber, P. Mitzscherlich, T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, J. Lumin. 40/41, 509 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. E. Erickson, Opt. Commun. 15, 246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

B. M. Antipenko, V. A. Buchenkov, A. S. Glebov, T. I. Kiseleva, A. A. Nikitichev, V. A. Pismennyi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 64, 772 (1988).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

V. M. Kenkre, D. Schmid, Phys. Rev. B 31, 2430 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, W. K. Zwicker, Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836 (1982); Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1020 (1981); R. C. Powell, J. K. Tyminski, A. M. Ghazzawi, C. M. Lawson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1355 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, D. D. Dlott, M. D. Fayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 131 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

For a recent review see G. P. Morgan, W. M. Yen, in Laser Spectroscopy of Solids II, W. M. Yen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 77.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneidner, L. R. Eyring, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979), Vol. 4, p. 275.
[CrossRef]

K. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, R. V. Hess, C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, N. P. Barnes, G. W. Henderson, M. R. Kokta, in Digest of Conference on Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB3.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fluorescence from the Tm3+ 3F4 level and the Ho3+ 5I7 level at room temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the grating decay rate with the write-beam crossing angle at room temperature. Open circles, experimental points; solid line, theoretical prediction. The filled circle corresponds to twice the fluorescence decay rate.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K = 2 / τ + [ 32 ( π / λ ) 2 sin 2 ( θ / 2 ) ] D ,
D = W n n ( R n n ) 2 ,
W n n = 1 / τ ( R 0 / R n n ) 6 ,
R 0 = [ ( 3 e 4 f 2 Ω τ ) / ( 8 π 2 m 2 c 3 n 4 v 2 ) ] 1 / 6 .
Ω = ( 1 / π ) = Δ v 1 + Δ v 2 ( Δ v 1 + Δ v 2 ) 2 + ( v 1 ° - v 2 ° ) 2 ,

Metrics