Abstract

The application of dry purple membrane films for nonlinear-optical filtering is described. The biological photo-chrome bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is contained in the purple membrane (PM) from Halobacterium halobium. BR has two dominant photoactive states, B and M, which have well-separated absorption bands with maxima at 570 nm (B) and 412 nm (M). Since the local transmission of a PM film depends on the ratio between the forward (B → M) and the backward (M → B) photoreactions, PM films can be used as light-controlled absorptive spatial light modulators. A model describing the nonlinear transmission of PM films containing the wild-type form of BR or one of its mutated variants, e.g., BRD96N, and examples of their application in spatial filtering, e.g., edge enhancement, are presented.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Y. Chang, J. H. Hong, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 15, 743 (1990).
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  3. D. Oesterhelt, W. Stoeckenius, Nature (London) 233, 149 (1971).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Soppa, J. Otomo, J. Straub, J. Tittor, S. Meessen, D. Oesterhelt, J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13049 (1989).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1990

T. Y. Chang, J. H. Hong, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 15, 743 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miller, D. Oesterhelt, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1020, 57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 58, 83 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Proc. IEEE 12, 1719 (1990).

1989

J. Y. Huang, Z. Chen, A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Birge, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 483 (1989).

J. Soppa, J. Otomo, J. Straub, J. Tittor, S. Meessen, D. Oesterhelt, J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13049 (1989).
[PubMed]

1988

T. Kouyama, K. Kinosita, A. Ikegami, Adv. Biophys. 24, 123 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

E. Y. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 450 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980

1971

D. Oesterhelt, W. Stoeckenius, Nature (London) 233, 149 (1971).

Birge, R. R.

R. R. Birge, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 483 (1989).

Bräuchle, C.

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Proc. IEEE 12, 1719 (1990).

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 58, 83 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, in Photochromism, H. Dürr, H. Bouas-Laurent, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), p. 954.

N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, C. Bräuchle, “The biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin and its genetic variant Asp96 → Asn as media for optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Chang, T. Y.

Chen, Z.

J. Y. Huang, Z. Chen, A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Hampp, N.

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 58, 83 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Proc. IEEE 12, 1719 (1990).

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, in Photochromism, H. Dürr, H. Bouas-Laurent, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), p. 954.

N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, C. Bräuchle, “The biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin and its genetic variant Asp96 → Asn as media for optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Hong, J. H.

Huang, J. Y.

J. Y. Huang, Z. Chen, A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, A.

T. Kouyama, K. Kinosita, A. Ikegami, Adv. Biophys. 24, 123 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinosita, K.

T. Kouyama, K. Kinosita, A. Ikegami, Adv. Biophys. 24, 123 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korchemskaya, E. Y.

E. Y. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 450 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kouyama, T.

T. Kouyama, K. Kinosita, A. Ikegami, Adv. Biophys. 24, 123 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

J. Y. Huang, Z. Chen, A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Meessen, S.

J. Soppa, J. Otomo, J. Straub, J. Tittor, S. Meessen, D. Oesterhelt, J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13049 (1989).
[PubMed]

Miller, A.

A. Miller, D. Oesterhelt, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1020, 57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Oesterhelt, D.

A. Miller, D. Oesterhelt, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1020, 57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Proc. IEEE 12, 1719 (1990).

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 58, 83 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Soppa, J. Otomo, J. Straub, J. Tittor, S. Meessen, D. Oesterhelt, J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13049 (1989).
[PubMed]

D. Oesterhelt, W. Stoeckenius, Nature (London) 233, 149 (1971).

N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, C. Bräuchle, “The biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin and its genetic variant Asp96 → Asn as media for optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Otomo, J.

J. Soppa, J. Otomo, J. Straub, J. Tittor, S. Meessen, D. Oesterhelt, J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13049 (1989).
[PubMed]

Soppa, J.

J. Soppa, J. Otomo, J. Straub, J. Tittor, S. Meessen, D. Oesterhelt, J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13049 (1989).
[PubMed]

Soskin, M. S.

E. Y. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 450 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckenius, W.

D. Oesterhelt, W. Stoeckenius, Nature (London) 233, 149 (1971).

Straub, J.

J. Soppa, J. Otomo, J. Straub, J. Tittor, S. Meessen, D. Oesterhelt, J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13049 (1989).
[PubMed]

Taranenko, V. B.

E. Y. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 450 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thoma, R.

N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, C. Bräuchle, “The biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin and its genetic variant Asp96 → Asn as media for optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Tittor, J.

J. Soppa, J. Otomo, J. Straub, J. Tittor, S. Meessen, D. Oesterhelt, J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13049 (1989).
[PubMed]

Yeh, P.

Adv. Biophys.

T. Kouyama, K. Kinosita, A. Ikegami, Adv. Biophys. 24, 123 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta

A. Miller, D. Oesterhelt, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1020, 57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 58, 83 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.

R. R. Birge, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 483 (1989).

J. Biol. Chem.

J. Soppa, J. Otomo, J. Straub, J. Tittor, S. Meessen, D. Oesterhelt, J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13049 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem.

J. Y. Huang, Z. Chen, A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

D. Oesterhelt, W. Stoeckenius, Nature (London) 233, 149 (1971).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Proc. IEEE 12, 1719 (1990).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

E. Y. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 450 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, in Photochromism, H. Dürr, H. Bouas-Laurent, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), p. 954.

N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, C. Bräuchle, “The biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin and its genetic variant Asp96 → Asn as media for optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified scheme of the photochemical and thermal conversions of bacteriorhodopsin from Halobacterium halobium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation of the intensity-dependent transmission of PM films. Influence of the sample parameters a, iOD and b, τM and light-controlled absorption changes for c, yellow and d, blue light are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a, Experimental setup for the photocontrolled modification of the Fourier spectrum of a pattern in a PM film and b, and example for all-optical edge enhancement of an E obtained by photochemical suppression of the low-order Fourier components.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photochemical modification of Fourier components in PM films used for edge enhancement (a and b) and complex filtering (c and d).

Equations (5)

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k i = [ 2302.6 ( i Φ i λ i / N A c h ) ] I i ,
d B / d t = - k i + B + k i - M + k M M .
B rel = B / B 0 = ( k i - + k M ) / ( k i + + k i - + k M ) .
α ( λ i , I j ) = { M ( λ i ) + [ B ( λ i ) - M ( λ i ) ] B rel ( I j ) } B 0 .
I i , n + 1 = I i , n exp [ - 2.3026 α ( λ i , I j ) Δ z ] .

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