Abstract

A novel type of photodetector called a variable-sensitivity photodetector has been developed for optical implementation of neural networks. It utilizes a metal–semiconductor–metal structure whose quantum efficiency can be modulated by an applied bias voltage. A linear dependence of the sensitivity on the bias voltage was obtained with the bipolar current flow. This device operated as a multiplier of the incident light intensity and the bias voltage. It is shown that this device is suitable for achieving dynamic synaptic interconnections. A 4 × 4 array device was fabricated and demonstrated.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example, D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, and the PDP Research Group, Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1986), Vols. I and II.
  2. N. H. Farhat, D. Psaltis, A. Prata, E. Paek, and Appl. Opt. 24, 1469 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Psaltis, N. Farhat, Opt. Lett. 10, 98 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Hubbard, D. Schwartz, J. Denker, H. P. Graf, R. Howard, L. Jackel, B. Straughn, D. Tennant, AIP Conf. Proc. 151, 227 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. P. Thakoor, A. Moopenn, J. Lambe, S. K. Khanna, Appl. Opt. 26, 5058 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Ohta, M. Takahashi, Y. Nitta, S. Tai, K. Mitsunaga, K. Kyuma, Opt. Lett. 14, 844 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Nitta, J. Ohta, K. Mitsunaga, M. Takahashi, S. Tai, K. Kyuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2101 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Ohta, Y. Nitta, K. Kyuma, in Conference Record of International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990), p. 243.
  9. T. Sugetsu, T. Urisu, S. Sakata, Y. Mizushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 459 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ito, O. Wada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1073 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Nakajima, T. Iida, K. Sugimoto, H. Kan, Y. Mizushima, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 31 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1990

K. Nakajima, T. Iida, K. Sugimoto, H. Kan, Y. Mizushima, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 31 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. Ohta, M. Takahashi, Y. Nitta, S. Tai, K. Mitsunaga, K. Kyuma, Opt. Lett. 14, 844 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nitta, J. Ohta, K. Mitsunaga, M. Takahashi, S. Tai, K. Kyuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. P. Thakoor, A. Moopenn, J. Lambe, S. K. Khanna, Appl. Opt. 26, 5058 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

W. Hubbard, D. Schwartz, J. Denker, H. P. Graf, R. Howard, L. Jackel, B. Straughn, D. Tennant, AIP Conf. Proc. 151, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Ito, O. Wada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1073 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1980

T. Sugetsu, T. Urisu, S. Sakata, Y. Mizushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Denker, J.

W. Hubbard, D. Schwartz, J. Denker, H. P. Graf, R. Howard, L. Jackel, B. Straughn, D. Tennant, AIP Conf. Proc. 151, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Farhat, N.

Farhat, N. H.

Graf, H. P.

W. Hubbard, D. Schwartz, J. Denker, H. P. Graf, R. Howard, L. Jackel, B. Straughn, D. Tennant, AIP Conf. Proc. 151, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Howard, R.

W. Hubbard, D. Schwartz, J. Denker, H. P. Graf, R. Howard, L. Jackel, B. Straughn, D. Tennant, AIP Conf. Proc. 151, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, W.

W. Hubbard, D. Schwartz, J. Denker, H. P. Graf, R. Howard, L. Jackel, B. Straughn, D. Tennant, AIP Conf. Proc. 151, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Iida, T.

K. Nakajima, T. Iida, K. Sugimoto, H. Kan, Y. Mizushima, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 31 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

M. Ito, O. Wada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1073 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, L.

W. Hubbard, D. Schwartz, J. Denker, H. P. Graf, R. Howard, L. Jackel, B. Straughn, D. Tennant, AIP Conf. Proc. 151, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

K. Nakajima, T. Iida, K. Sugimoto, H. Kan, Y. Mizushima, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 31 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. K.

A. P. Thakoor, A. Moopenn, J. Lambe, S. K. Khanna, Appl. Opt. 26, 5058 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kyuma, K.

J. Ohta, M. Takahashi, Y. Nitta, S. Tai, K. Mitsunaga, K. Kyuma, Opt. Lett. 14, 844 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nitta, J. Ohta, K. Mitsunaga, M. Takahashi, S. Tai, K. Kyuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Ohta, Y. Nitta, K. Kyuma, in Conference Record of International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990), p. 243.

Lambe, J.

A. P. Thakoor, A. Moopenn, J. Lambe, S. K. Khanna, Appl. Opt. 26, 5058 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, J. L.

See, for example, D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, and the PDP Research Group, Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1986), Vols. I and II.

Mitsunaga, K.

J. Ohta, M. Takahashi, Y. Nitta, S. Tai, K. Mitsunaga, K. Kyuma, Opt. Lett. 14, 844 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nitta, J. Ohta, K. Mitsunaga, M. Takahashi, S. Tai, K. Kyuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mizushima, Y.

K. Nakajima, T. Iida, K. Sugimoto, H. Kan, Y. Mizushima, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 31 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugetsu, T. Urisu, S. Sakata, Y. Mizushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Moopenn, A.

A. P. Thakoor, A. Moopenn, J. Lambe, S. K. Khanna, Appl. Opt. 26, 5058 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima, T. Iida, K. Sugimoto, H. Kan, Y. Mizushima, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 31 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, Y.

Y. Nitta, J. Ohta, K. Mitsunaga, M. Takahashi, S. Tai, K. Kyuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Ohta, M. Takahashi, Y. Nitta, S. Tai, K. Mitsunaga, K. Kyuma, Opt. Lett. 14, 844 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ohta, Y. Nitta, K. Kyuma, in Conference Record of International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990), p. 243.

Ohta, J.

Y. Nitta, J. Ohta, K. Mitsunaga, M. Takahashi, S. Tai, K. Kyuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Ohta, M. Takahashi, Y. Nitta, S. Tai, K. Mitsunaga, K. Kyuma, Opt. Lett. 14, 844 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ohta, Y. Nitta, K. Kyuma, in Conference Record of International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990), p. 243.

Paek, E.

Prata, A.

Psaltis, D.

Rumelhart, D. E.

See, for example, D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, and the PDP Research Group, Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1986), Vols. I and II.

Sakata, S.

T. Sugetsu, T. Urisu, S. Sakata, Y. Mizushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, D.

W. Hubbard, D. Schwartz, J. Denker, H. P. Graf, R. Howard, L. Jackel, B. Straughn, D. Tennant, AIP Conf. Proc. 151, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Straughn, B.

W. Hubbard, D. Schwartz, J. Denker, H. P. Graf, R. Howard, L. Jackel, B. Straughn, D. Tennant, AIP Conf. Proc. 151, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sugetsu, T.

T. Sugetsu, T. Urisu, S. Sakata, Y. Mizushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, K.

K. Nakajima, T. Iida, K. Sugimoto, H. Kan, Y. Mizushima, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 31 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tai, S.

Y. Nitta, J. Ohta, K. Mitsunaga, M. Takahashi, S. Tai, K. Kyuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Ohta, M. Takahashi, Y. Nitta, S. Tai, K. Mitsunaga, K. Kyuma, Opt. Lett. 14, 844 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, M.

Y. Nitta, J. Ohta, K. Mitsunaga, M. Takahashi, S. Tai, K. Kyuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Ohta, M. Takahashi, Y. Nitta, S. Tai, K. Mitsunaga, K. Kyuma, Opt. Lett. 14, 844 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tennant, D.

W. Hubbard, D. Schwartz, J. Denker, H. P. Graf, R. Howard, L. Jackel, B. Straughn, D. Tennant, AIP Conf. Proc. 151, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Thakoor, A. P.

A. P. Thakoor, A. Moopenn, J. Lambe, S. K. Khanna, Appl. Opt. 26, 5058 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Urisu, T.

T. Sugetsu, T. Urisu, S. Sakata, Y. Mizushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wada, O.

M. Ito, O. Wada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1073 (1986).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc.

W. Hubbard, D. Schwartz, J. Denker, H. P. Graf, R. Howard, L. Jackel, B. Straughn, D. Tennant, AIP Conf. Proc. 151, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

A. P. Thakoor, A. Moopenn, J. Lambe, S. K. Khanna, Appl. Opt. 26, 5058 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Farhat, D. Psaltis, A. Prata, E. Paek, and Appl. Opt. 24, 1469 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Ito, O. Wada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1073 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices

K. Nakajima, T. Iida, K. Sugimoto, H. Kan, Y. Mizushima, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 31 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Nitta, J. Ohta, K. Mitsunaga, M. Takahashi, S. Tai, K. Kyuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugetsu, T. Urisu, S. Sakata, Y. Mizushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

See, for example, D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, and the PDP Research Group, Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1986), Vols. I and II.

J. Ohta, Y. Nitta, K. Kyuma, in Conference Record of International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990), p. 243.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the VSPD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensitivity versus gap width for different bias voltages. The finger width is 5 μm, and the input power Pin is 1.3 mW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photocurrent versus optical power Pin as a parameter of applied voltage Vb. The finger width is 10 μm, and the gap width is 10 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photocurrent versus applied bias voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total photocurrent versus the number of on-state VSPD’s with applied voltage Vb as a parameter.

Equations (1)

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u i = j = 1 N η i j v j ,

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