Abstract

We describe the properties and construction of a polarization-independent Fresnel lens array using nematic liquid crystals in which the diffraction efficiency of lenses can be electrically controlled. A novel structure is used such that the principal axis of the liquid crystals in two adjacent zones of each Fresnel lens are orthogonal. This makes the device polarization independent. We have characterized these lenses at different applied fields and input polarizations by diffracting an argon-ion beam into focus.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Shamir, H. J. Caulfield, R. B. Johnson, Appl. Opt. 28, 311 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Sakano, K. Naguchi, T. Matsumoto, Appl. Opt. 29, 1094 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, Appl. Opt. 29, 931 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. Rastani, A. Marrakchi, S. F. Habiby, W. M. Hubbard, H. Gilchrist, R. E. Nahory, Appl. Opt. 30, 1317 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. M. Blinov, Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Properties of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  6. G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1168, 352 (1989).
  7. J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, Ferroelectrics 57, 137 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. S. Patel, J. W. Goodby, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2355 (1986).
    [Crossref]

1991 (1)

K. Rastani, A. Marrakchi, S. F. Habiby, W. M. Hubbard, H. Gilchrist, R. E. Nahory, Appl. Opt. 30, 1317 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

1989 (1)

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1168, 352 (1989).

1986 (1)

J. S. Patel, J. W. Goodby, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2355 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, Ferroelectrics 57, 137 (1984).
[Crossref]

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov, Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Properties of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Caulfield, H. J.

Clark, M. G.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1168, 352 (1989).

Gilchrist, H.

K. Rastani, A. Marrakchi, S. F. Habiby, W. M. Hubbard, H. Gilchrist, R. E. Nahory, Appl. Opt. 30, 1317 (1991).
[Crossref]

Goodby, J. W.

J. S. Patel, J. W. Goodby, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2355 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, Ferroelectrics 57, 137 (1984).
[Crossref]

Habiby, S. F.

K. Rastani, A. Marrakchi, S. F. Habiby, W. M. Hubbard, H. Gilchrist, R. E. Nahory, Appl. Opt. 30, 1317 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hubbard, W. M.

K. Rastani, A. Marrakchi, S. F. Habiby, W. M. Hubbard, H. Gilchrist, R. E. Nahory, Appl. Opt. 30, 1317 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jahns, J.

Johnson, R. B.

Leslie, T. M.

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, Ferroelectrics 57, 137 (1984).
[Crossref]

Marrakchi, A.

K. Rastani, A. Marrakchi, S. F. Habiby, W. M. Hubbard, H. Gilchrist, R. E. Nahory, Appl. Opt. 30, 1317 (1991).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, T.

Naguchi, K.

Nahory, R. E.

K. Rastani, A. Marrakchi, S. F. Habiby, W. M. Hubbard, H. Gilchrist, R. E. Nahory, Appl. Opt. 30, 1317 (1991).
[Crossref]

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel, J. W. Goodby, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2355 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, Ferroelectrics 57, 137 (1984).
[Crossref]

Powell, N. J.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1168, 352 (1989).

Purvis, A.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1168, 352 (1989).

Rastani, K.

K. Rastani, A. Marrakchi, S. F. Habiby, W. M. Hubbard, H. Gilchrist, R. E. Nahory, Appl. Opt. 30, 1317 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sakano, T.

Shamir, J.

Walker, S. J.

Williams, G.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1168, 352 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Ferroelectrics (1)

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, Ferroelectrics 57, 137 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. S. Patel, J. W. Goodby, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2355 (1986).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1168, 352 (1989).

Other (1)

L. M. Blinov, Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Properties of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1983).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top: an optical micrograph of the fabricated liquid-crystal binary-phase Fresnel lenses with an applied field of 1.9 V. The photograph was taken by using a quarter-wave plate and placing the sample between cross polarizers. Bottom: a section of the array of focused beams generated when a single argon-ion beam was diffracted from the liquid-crystal lens array. A scan of the intensity reveals uniformity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity scan for the horizontally and vertically polarized beam focused by a single liquid-crystal Fresnel lens for different applied voltages of 0.84 V (no observable focus), 1.2 V, and 1.9 V (maximum intensity). The left-hand side shows the results for the horizontal polarization, and the right-hand side shows the results for vertically polarized light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of the diffraction efficiencies as a function of the voltage applied to the liquid-crystal Fresnel lens for two orthogonal polarizations. The symbols correspond to horizontal (circles) and vertical (crosses) polarization of the input light.

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