Abstract

We have measured a light-intensity-dependent change in the refractive index of thin films of the amorphous semiconductor arsenic sulfide. In a novel type of nonlinearity, strongly absorbed light produces a relatively large change in the optical properties of the material at wavelengths where the absorption is weak. This represents a compromise between the large resonant nonlinearities found in crystalline semiconductors, which have the disadvantage of large signal attenuation, and the nonresonant nonlinearities, which occur at wavelengths with low absorption but are small.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For recent reviews see Optical Nonlinearities and Instabilities in Semiconductors, H. Haug, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1988).
  2. A. Miller, D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, Adv. Phys. 30, 697 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. For reviews of the properties of amorphous semiconductors see Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, J. Tauc, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1974); Amorphous Semiconductors, M. Brodsky, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, P. J. S. Ewen, Philos. Mag. B 52, 347 (1985); K. Tanaka, in Fundamental Physics of Amorphous Semiconductors, F. Yonezawa, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 104; C. H. Kwak, S. S. Lee, Appl. Opt. 27, 2858 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, A. M. Glass, A. Migus, M. A. Bosch, J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 394 (1979); J. Orenstein, M. A. Kaster, V. Vaninov, Philos. Mag. B 46, 23 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. E. Ackley, J. Tauc, W. Paul, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 957 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Ranganathan, M. Gal, P. C. Taylor, Phys. Rev. B 37, 10216 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. S. Rodney, I. H. Malitson, T. A. King, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 633 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light With Light (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).
  11. D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. Ranganathan, M. Gal, P. C. Taylor, Phys. Rev. B 37, 10216 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, P. J. S. Ewen, Philos. Mag. B 52, 347 (1985); K. Tanaka, in Fundamental Physics of Amorphous Semiconductors, F. Yonezawa, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 104; C. H. Kwak, S. S. Lee, Appl. Opt. 27, 2858 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

A. Miller, D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, Adv. Phys. 30, 697 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. E. Ackley, J. Tauc, W. Paul, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 957 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, A. M. Glass, A. Migus, M. A. Bosch, J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 394 (1979); J. Orenstein, M. A. Kaster, V. Vaninov, Philos. Mag. B 46, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

Ackley, D. E.

D. E. Ackley, J. Tauc, W. Paul, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 957 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Banyai, L.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosch, M. A.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, A. M. Glass, A. Migus, M. A. Bosch, J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 394 (1979); J. Orenstein, M. A. Kaster, V. Vaninov, Philos. Mag. B 46, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewen, P. J. S.

A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, P. J. S. Ewen, Philos. Mag. B 52, 347 (1985); K. Tanaka, in Fundamental Physics of Amorphous Semiconductors, F. Yonezawa, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 104; C. H. Kwak, S. S. Lee, Appl. Opt. 27, 2858 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firth, A. P.

A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, P. J. S. Ewen, Philos. Mag. B 52, 347 (1985); K. Tanaka, in Fundamental Physics of Amorphous Semiconductors, F. Yonezawa, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 104; C. H. Kwak, S. S. Lee, Appl. Opt. 27, 2858 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fork, R. L.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, A. M. Glass, A. Migus, M. A. Bosch, J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 394 (1979); J. Orenstein, M. A. Kaster, V. Vaninov, Philos. Mag. B 46, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gal, M.

R. Ranganathan, M. Gal, P. C. Taylor, Phys. Rev. B 37, 10216 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light With Light (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

Glass, A. M.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, A. M. Glass, A. Migus, M. A. Bosch, J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 394 (1979); J. Orenstein, M. A. Kaster, V. Vaninov, Philos. Mag. B 46, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffrey, A.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, T. A.

Koch, S. W.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malitson, I. H.

Migus, A.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, A. M. Glass, A. Migus, M. A. Bosch, J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 394 (1979); J. Orenstein, M. A. Kaster, V. Vaninov, Philos. Mag. B 46, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

A. Miller, D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, Adv. Phys. 30, 697 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

A. Miller, D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, Adv. Phys. 30, 697 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Morhange, J.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, A. E.

A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, P. J. S. Ewen, Philos. Mag. B 52, 347 (1985); K. Tanaka, in Fundamental Physics of Amorphous Semiconductors, F. Yonezawa, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 104; C. H. Kwak, S. S. Lee, Appl. Opt. 27, 2858 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, W.

D. E. Ackley, J. Tauc, W. Paul, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 957 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prise, M. E.

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ranganathan, R.

R. Ranganathan, M. Gal, P. C. Taylor, Phys. Rev. B 37, 10216 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rodney, W. S.

Seaton, C. T.

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, A. M. Glass, A. Migus, M. A. Bosch, J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 394 (1979); J. Orenstein, M. A. Kaster, V. Vaninov, Philos. Mag. B 46, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, A. M. Glass, A. Migus, M. A. Bosch, J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 394 (1979); J. Orenstein, M. A. Kaster, V. Vaninov, Philos. Mag. B 46, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

A. Miller, D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, Adv. Phys. 30, 697 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tauc, J.

D. E. Ackley, J. Tauc, W. Paul, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 957 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, P. C.

R. Ranganathan, M. Gal, P. C. Taylor, Phys. Rev. B 37, 10216 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Phys. (1)

A. Miller, D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, Adv. Phys. 30, 697 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

D. E. Ackley, J. Tauc, W. Paul, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 957 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Philos. Mag. B (1)

A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, P. J. S. Ewen, Philos. Mag. B 52, 347 (1985); K. Tanaka, in Fundamental Physics of Amorphous Semiconductors, F. Yonezawa, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 104; C. H. Kwak, S. S. Lee, Appl. Opt. 27, 2858 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Ranganathan, M. Gal, P. C. Taylor, Phys. Rev. B 37, 10216 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, A. M. Glass, A. Migus, M. A. Bosch, J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 394 (1979); J. Orenstein, M. A. Kaster, V. Vaninov, Philos. Mag. B 46, 23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

For recent reviews see Optical Nonlinearities and Instabilities in Semiconductors, H. Haug, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1988).

For reviews of the properties of amorphous semiconductors see Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, J. Tauc, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1974); Amorphous Semiconductors, M. Brodsky, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light With Light (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Light intensity transmitted through a thin film of AsS on a quartz substrate as a function of wavelength. The solid curve is the best fit to the data of Eq. (1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Change in transmitted intensity with laser pumping as a function of probe wavelength. The pump power is 200 mW, the pump wavelength is 514 nm, and the spot size is approximately 1 mm. The solid curve is the best fit to the data of Eq. (2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in refractive index as a function of pump power at three probe wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in reflected intensity as a function of chopping rate. The inset shows the geometry of this measurement.

Equations (2)

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T = I t I i = 64 n 2 n s 2 / ( n s + 1 ) 2 [ ( n + 1 ) 2 ( n + n s ) 2 exp ( α d ) + ( n - 1 ) 2 ( n - n s ) 2 exp ( - α d ) - 2 ( n 2 - 1 ) ( n 2 - n s 2 ) cos ( 4 π n d / λ ) ] ,
Δ T T = T n Δ n T + T α Δ α T ,

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