Abstract

Spatial mode multiplexing is used to transmit several communication channels on a single multimode optical fiber. Each channel is encoded by an orthogonal pattern produced by a spatial light modulator. A photorefractive medium holographically decodes the output speckle pattern at a receiver station. We demonstrate ring and star architectures for interconnection networks. Typical cross-talk-to-signal ratios, for fully interconnected three-processor networks, are −24 and −26 dB for the ring and star, respectively.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For an interesting discussion on fiber modes, see A. Yariv, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 301 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. On unitarity see, for example, L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, Non-Relativistic Theory, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), p. 35.
  3. For a description of other fiber-multiplexing techniques, see A. B. Sharma, S. J. Halme, M. M. Butusov, Optical Fiber Systems and Their Components (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
  4. Related research on spatial mode multiplexing, which was, however, limited to fibers without mode coupling, has been reported by S. Berdague, P. Facq, Appl. Opt. 21, 1950 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981).
  6. Holographic detection for fiber sensors has been used by T. J. Hall, M. A. Fiddy, M. S. Ner, Opt. Lett. 5,485 (1980), and G. Indebetouw, K. D. Bennett, P. Zhang, R. G. May, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1039 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. For a recent review of the field see J. W. Goodman, in Optical Processing and Computing, H. H. Arsenault, T. Szoplik, B. Macukow, eds. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1989), Chap. 1.
  8. The fused coupler losses are approximately mode independent, so field orthogonality, but not unitarity, is preserved.
  9. K. Bløtekjaer, Appl. Opt. 18, 57 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Z. Anderson, D. M. Lininger, Appl. Opt. 26, 5031 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Y. Zel’dovich, V. V. Shkunov, T. V. Yakovleva, Sov. Phys. Usp. 29, 678 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

B. Y. Zel’dovich, V. V. Shkunov, T. V. Yakovleva, Sov. Phys. Usp. 29, 678 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1976 (1)

Anderson, D. Z.

Berdague, S.

Bløtekjaer, K.

Butusov, M. M.

For a description of other fiber-multiplexing techniques, see A. B. Sharma, S. J. Halme, M. M. Butusov, Optical Fiber Systems and Their Components (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

Cooke, D. J.

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981).

Facq, P.

Fiddy, M. A.

Goodman, J. W.

For a recent review of the field see J. W. Goodman, in Optical Processing and Computing, H. H. Arsenault, T. Szoplik, B. Macukow, eds. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1989), Chap. 1.

Hall, T. J.

Halme, S. J.

For a description of other fiber-multiplexing techniques, see A. B. Sharma, S. J. Halme, M. M. Butusov, Optical Fiber Systems and Their Components (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

Landau, L. D.

On unitarity see, for example, L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, Non-Relativistic Theory, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), p. 35.

Lifshitz, E. M.

On unitarity see, for example, L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, Non-Relativistic Theory, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), p. 35.

Lininger, D. M.

Ner, M. S.

Sharma, A. B.

For a description of other fiber-multiplexing techniques, see A. B. Sharma, S. J. Halme, M. M. Butusov, Optical Fiber Systems and Their Components (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

Shkunov, V. V.

B. Y. Zel’dovich, V. V. Shkunov, T. V. Yakovleva, Sov. Phys. Usp. 29, 678 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Solymar, L.

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981).

Yakovleva, T. V.

B. Y. Zel’dovich, V. V. Shkunov, T. V. Yakovleva, Sov. Phys. Usp. 29, 678 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Zel’dovich, B. Y.

B. Y. Zel’dovich, V. V. Shkunov, T. V. Yakovleva, Sov. Phys. Usp. 29, 678 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

B. Y. Zel’dovich, V. V. Shkunov, T. V. Yakovleva, Sov. Phys. Usp. 29, 678 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

For a recent review of the field see J. W. Goodman, in Optical Processing and Computing, H. H. Arsenault, T. Szoplik, B. Macukow, eds. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1989), Chap. 1.

The fused coupler losses are approximately mode independent, so field orthogonality, but not unitarity, is preserved.

On unitarity see, for example, L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, Non-Relativistic Theory, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), p. 35.

For a description of other fiber-multiplexing techniques, see A. B. Sharma, S. J. Halme, M. M. Butusov, Optical Fiber Systems and Their Components (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mode multiplexing in a multimode fiber. The fiber is step index, with a 100 μm core and a 50-cm length. The LiNbO3 crystal is 6 mm thick and doped with 0.015 wt. % Fe, and the beam overlap region is approximately 0.2 mm × 0.2 mm × 1.1 mm. The receiver is composed of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS), a shutter (S), and 20- and 40-mm focal-length lenses (f).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of diffracted signal with the input pattern. The calculated lines correspond to the area overlap of two displaced rectangles and therefore do not account for diffraction from the edges.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency and cross talk versus exposure time for a single hologram. Cross talk is defined as the diffracted signal from the orthogonal input pattern divided by the diffracted signal from the original input pattern. The writing intensity is 0.7 W/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ring and star optical interconnection networks. (a) The ring nodes are connected to the network with symmetric multimode couplers. (b) The star uses a single interconnection crystal as an optical crossbar. The fiber coupler is a 10× microscope objective, and the beam overlap region is approximately 0.9 mm × 0.9 mm × 5.1 mm. B. Sel., beam selector; f’s, 40-mm focal-length lenses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Data switching in the star network with two simultaneous talkers. Nodes 1 and 2 transmit at 23 and 160 kHz. In (a) 1 talks to 2 and 2 talks to 1; in (b) 1 talks to 1 and 2 talks to 2.

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