Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new two-dimensional optical architecture based on polarization switching by N spatial light modulators that provides 2N time delays to a phased-array antenna of p × p radiating elements. Moreover the 0 to 2π phase of the microwave signals is optically controlled by a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator that operates in the birefringent mode. The microwave signal originates from the coherent detection of a dual-frequency laser beam obtained with an acousto-optic frequency shifter. Preliminary experimental results obtained at a microwave frequency f = 1.85 GHz are presented.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. J. Mailloux, Proc. IEEE 70, 246 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. N. Lee, in Optical Signal Procesing, J. L. Horner, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), p. 165.
  3. G. A. Koepf, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 477, 75 (1984).
  4. M. Tamburini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, Electron. Lett. 23, 680 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Hong, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1102, 134 (1989).
  6. D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, M. Baril, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1102, 152 (1989).
  7. A. P. Goutzoulis, D. K. Davies, J. M. Zomp, Opt. Eng. 28, 1193 (1989).
  8. W. Ng, A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. New-berg, Electron. Lett. 26, 791 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Goldberg, A. M. Yurek, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, Electron. Lett. 21, 814 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Dolfi, B. Forestier, B. Loiseaux, H. Rajbenbach, J. P. Huignard, Appl. Opt. 29, 5228 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Pongot, P. Nyeki, Ph. Defranoult, J. P. Huignard, in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 501. See also the technical data sheet of CB 700 devices (Thomson Sintra-DTAS).

1990 (2)

W. Ng, A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. New-berg, Electron. Lett. 26, 791 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Dolfi, B. Forestier, B. Loiseaux, H. Rajbenbach, J. P. Huignard, Appl. Opt. 29, 5228 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

J. H. Hong, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1102, 134 (1989).

D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, M. Baril, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1102, 152 (1989).

A. P. Goutzoulis, D. K. Davies, J. M. Zomp, Opt. Eng. 28, 1193 (1989).

1987 (1)

M. Tamburini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, Electron. Lett. 23, 680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

G. Goldberg, A. M. Yurek, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, Electron. Lett. 21, 814 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. A. Koepf, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 477, 75 (1984).

1982 (1)

R. J. Mailloux, Proc. IEEE 70, 246 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Baril, M.

D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, M. Baril, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1102, 152 (1989).

Davies, D. K.

A. P. Goutzoulis, D. K. Davies, J. M. Zomp, Opt. Eng. 28, 1193 (1989).

Defranoult, Ph.

J. C. Pongot, P. Nyeki, Ph. Defranoult, J. P. Huignard, in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 501. See also the technical data sheet of CB 700 devices (Thomson Sintra-DTAS).

Dolfi, D.

D. Dolfi, B. Forestier, B. Loiseaux, H. Rajbenbach, J. P. Huignard, Appl. Opt. 29, 5228 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, M. Baril, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1102, 152 (1989).

Forestier, B.

Goldberg, G.

G. Goldberg, A. M. Yurek, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, Electron. Lett. 21, 814 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

M. Tamburini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, Electron. Lett. 23, 680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Goutzoulis, A. P.

A. P. Goutzoulis, D. K. Davies, J. M. Zomp, Opt. Eng. 28, 1193 (1989).

Hong, J. H.

J. H. Hong, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1102, 134 (1989).

Huignard, J. P.

D. Dolfi, B. Forestier, B. Loiseaux, H. Rajbenbach, J. P. Huignard, Appl. Opt. 29, 5228 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, M. Baril, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1102, 152 (1989).

J. C. Pongot, P. Nyeki, Ph. Defranoult, J. P. Huignard, in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 501. See also the technical data sheet of CB 700 devices (Thomson Sintra-DTAS).

Koepf, G. A.

G. A. Koepf, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 477, 75 (1984).

Lee, J. J.

W. Ng, A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. New-berg, Electron. Lett. 26, 791 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. N.

J. N. Lee, in Optical Signal Procesing, J. L. Horner, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), p. 165.

Loiseaux, B.

Mailloux, R. J.

R. J. Mailloux, Proc. IEEE 70, 246 (1982).
[CrossRef]

New-berg, I.

W. Ng, A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. New-berg, Electron. Lett. 26, 791 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W.

W. Ng, A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. New-berg, Electron. Lett. 26, 791 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nyeki, P.

J. C. Pongot, P. Nyeki, Ph. Defranoult, J. P. Huignard, in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 501. See also the technical data sheet of CB 700 devices (Thomson Sintra-DTAS).

Parent, M.

M. Tamburini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, Electron. Lett. 23, 680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pongot, J. C.

J. C. Pongot, P. Nyeki, Ph. Defranoult, J. P. Huignard, in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 501. See also the technical data sheet of CB 700 devices (Thomson Sintra-DTAS).

Rajbenbach, H.

Stillwell, D.

M. Tamburini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, Electron. Lett. 23, 680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tamburini, M.

M. Tamburini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, Electron. Lett. 23, 680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tangonan, G.

W. Ng, A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. New-berg, Electron. Lett. 26, 791 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

G. Goldberg, A. M. Yurek, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, Electron. Lett. 21, 814 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Walston, A.

W. Ng, A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. New-berg, Electron. Lett. 26, 791 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weller, J. F.

G. Goldberg, A. M. Yurek, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, Electron. Lett. 21, 814 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yurek, A. M.

G. Goldberg, A. M. Yurek, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, Electron. Lett. 21, 814 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zomp, J. M.

A. P. Goutzoulis, D. K. Davies, J. M. Zomp, Opt. Eng. 28, 1193 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (3)

M. Tamburini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, Electron. Lett. 23, 680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. Ng, A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. New-berg, Electron. Lett. 26, 791 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Goldberg, A. M. Yurek, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, Electron. Lett. 21, 814 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. P. Goutzoulis, D. K. Davies, J. M. Zomp, Opt. Eng. 28, 1193 (1989).

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. J. Mailloux, Proc. IEEE 70, 246 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (3)

J. H. Hong, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1102, 134 (1989).

D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, M. Baril, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1102, 152 (1989).

G. A. Koepf, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 477, 75 (1984).

Other (2)

J. N. Lee, in Optical Signal Procesing, J. L. Horner, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), p. 165.

J. C. Pongot, P. Nyeki, Ph. Defranoult, J. P. Huignard, in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 501. See also the technical data sheet of CB 700 devices (Thomson Sintra-DTAS).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time delays for a phased-array antenna. BE, beam expander.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Operating principle of the delay modules: (a) the position of Pi fixes the delay value, (b) the thickness of glass plate (l) fixes the delay value.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detected microwave signals at f = 1.85 GHz for eight time delays. The large-amplitude trace is the detected signal on photodiode PD. The small-amplitude traces are the detected signals on one of the photodiodes of PDA after beam switching on the SLM’s. Horizontal scale, 500 psec/division; vertical scale, 20 mV/division.

Fig.4
Fig.4

Detected microwave signal at f = 1.85 GHz on one of the 3 × 3 channels for optical phase control between 0 and 3π. Liquid-crystal thickness, 8 μm; birefringence, 0.15. The applied voltage varies between 1 and 3 V from the top to the bottom of the figure (horizontal scale, 500 psec/division; vertical scale, 20 mV/division).

Equations (2)

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i k ( t ) - i o cos [ 2 π f t + 2 π λ e Δ n ( V k ) ] .
i k ( t ) = i o cos [ 2 π f t + 2 π f j = 1 N k , j 2 j - 1 τ + 2 π λ e Δ n ( V k ) ] .

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