Abstract

We report what is to our knowledge the first observation of fundamental dark spatial solitons. The solitons are launched in bulk semiconductors using an initial condition with odd symmetry. In order to form the initial condition, a glass platelet is positioned in one half of an incident 30-psecpulse, creating a π phase shift in the spatial profile. Several propagation parameters for the solitons are measured experimentally, and good agreement with theory is obtained.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, A. E. Kaplan, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-7; D. R. Andersen, D. E. Hooton, G. A. Swartzlander, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 15, 783 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); Ph. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, R. Tremblay, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, Opt. Lett. 15, 471 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Sheik-bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 8 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper QTUM3.
  5. V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823 (1973).
  6. A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirshner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1484 (1989).
    [Crossref]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

1988 (1)

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirshner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); Ph. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, R. Tremblay, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823 (1973).

Aitchison, J. S.

Andersen, D. R.

D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1484 (1989).
[Crossref]

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, A. E. Kaplan, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-7; D. R. Andersen, D. E. Hooton, G. A. Swartzlander, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 15, 783 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barthelemy, A.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); Ph. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, R. Tremblay, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

Froehly, C.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); Ph. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, R. Tremblay, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 8 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper QTUM3.

Hawkins, R. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirshner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heritage, J. P.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirshner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackel, J. L.

Kaplan, A. E.

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, A. E. Kaplan, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-7; D. R. Andersen, D. E. Hooton, G. A. Swartzlander, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 15, 783 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirshner, E. M.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirshner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leaird, D. E.

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, Opt. Lett. 15, 471 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirshner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maneuf, S.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); Ph. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, R. Tremblay, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

Oliver, M. K.

Regan, J. J.

D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1484 (1989).
[Crossref]

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, A. E. Kaplan, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-7; D. R. Andersen, D. E. Hooton, G. A. Swartzlander, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 15, 783 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shabat, A. B.

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823 (1973).

Sheik-bahae, M.

M. Sheik-bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 8 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper QTUM3.

Silberberg, Y.

Smith, P. W. E.

Swartzlander, G. A.

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, A. E. Kaplan, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-7; D. R. Andersen, D. E. Hooton, G. A. Swartzlander, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 15, 783 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thurston, R. N.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirshner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirshner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

VanStryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 8 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper QTUM3.

Vogel, E. M.

Weiner, A. M.

Zakharov, V. E.

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); Ph. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, R. Tremblay, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirshner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823 (1973).

Other (2)

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, A. E. Kaplan, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-7; D. R. Andersen, D. E. Hooton, G. A. Swartzlander, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 15, 783 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 8 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper QTUM3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration for the observation of dark spatial solitons. The incident optical pulse passes through a phase mask (the glass platelet), illuminates the sample, and then is imaged onto the entrance slit of a streak camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results for bulk ZnSe at λ = 532 nm, depicting (a) the temporal evolution of the output field for an odd initial condition and (b) the corresponding interferogram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results showing the spatial irradiance profile after propagation through a 5-mm sample thickness for four incident pulse irradiances: (a) 1.6 GW/cm2, (b) 1.4 GW/cm2, (c) 1.0 GW/cm2, and (d) linear diffraction. As the bright background irradiance is increased, a narrowing of the spatial width of the dark feature can be observed, a behavior consistent with that expected theoretically for dark spatial solitons.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of a numerical simulation for the propagation of the fundamental dark spatial soliton on a bright Gaussian pulse background: the peak dark irradiance (diamonds), the full width at half-maximum (circles), and the width squared times peak dark irradiance product as a function of propagation distance (squares). It can be noted that the product is a constant of motion and is equal to the soliton constant (solid line).

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