Abstract

We demonstrate a similar wavelength-dependent response for both the generation of Ge E′ centers and the formation of photosensitive gratings in germania-doped silica fibers. This supports a model for the grating formation whereby two-photon absorption of laser radiation into the UV bleachable absorption band of an oxygen-deficient germania site creates hole traps, modeled as Ge E′ centers, which are detectable with electron spin reasonance spectroscopy.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
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  5. V. Garino-Canina, Compt. Rend. 242, 1982 (1956).
  6. M. J. Yuen, Appl. Opt. 21, 136 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 15, 102 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 319 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. I. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, “Physics of photosensitive grating formation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
  10. D. L. Griscom, Advances in Structural Analysis, Vol. 4B of Glass Science and Technology, D. R. Uhlmann, N. J. Kreidl, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), Chap. 3.
  11. S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. I. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 15, 399 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. J. Poyntz-Wright, M. E. Fermann, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 13, 1023 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, F. J. Leonberger, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 798, 104 (1987).

1986 (1)

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

A. J. Cohen, Phys. Rev. 105, 1151 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

V. Garino-Canina, Compt. Rend. 242, 1982 (1956).

Cohen, A. J.

A. J. Cohen, Phys. Rev. 105, 1151 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Dunphy, J. R.

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, F. J. Leonberger, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 798, 104 (1987).

Farina, J. D.

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, F. J. Leonberger, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 798, 104 (1987).

Fermann, M. E.

Friebele, E. J.

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Garino-Canina, V.

V. Garino-Canina, Compt. Rend. 242, 1982 (1956).

Garside, B. K.

Glenn, W. H.

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, F. J. Leonberger, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 798, 104 (1987).

Griscom, D. L.

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Griscom, Advances in Structural Analysis, Vol. 4B of Glass Science and Technology, D. R. Uhlmann, N. J. Kreidl, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), Chap. 3.

Hand, D. P.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lam, D. K. W.

LaRochelle, S.

S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. I. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 15, 399 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. I. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, “Physics of photosensitive grating formation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Leonberger, F. J.

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, F. J. Leonberger, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 798, 104 (1987).

Meltz, G.

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, F. J. Leonberger, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 798, 104 (1987).

Mizrahi, V.

S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. I. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 15, 399 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. I. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, “Physics of photosensitive grating formation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Poyntz-Wright, L. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Simmons, K. D.

Sipe, J. E.

S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. I. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 15, 399 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. I. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, “Physics of photosensitive grating formation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Stegeman, G. I.

S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. I. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 15, 399 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. I. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, “Physics of photosensitive grating formation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Yuen, M. J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Compt. Rend. (1)

V. Garino-Canina, Compt. Rend. 242, 1982 (1956).

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. J. Cohen, Phys. Rev. 105, 1151 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, F. J. Leonberger, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 798, 104 (1987).

Other (2)

V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. I. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, “Physics of photosensitive grating formation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

D. L. Griscom, Advances in Structural Analysis, Vol. 4B of Glass Science and Technology, D. R. Uhlmann, N. J. Kreidl, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), Chap. 3.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used to write photosensitive fiber gratings: AS, aperture stop; BS’s, beam splitters; IF’s, interference filters; OF, optical fiber. Detectors include Pl, Ar-laser power; Pr, reflected Ar power; Pt, transmitted Ar power; Ph, transmitted He–Ne power (λ = 632.8 nm). A–C mark locations of kinematic mounts into which mirrors were set for the high-power exposures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Triangles describe the wavelength dependence of the parameter B(λ) normalized to its average value at 488 nm. Squares describe the variation in the concentration of Ge E′ centers with wavelength, normalized to the average value at 476.5 nm. Data points represent the average of two samples analyzed at each of the following wavelengths: 457.9, 476.5, 488.0, 496.5, and 514.5 nm. The solid line at the bottom of the figure depicts the concentration of defect centers in a sample of unexposed reference fibers. The dashed curve represents the normalized UV absorption spectrum of the GeO species6 doubled in wavelength for comparison. Note that the parameter B(λ) describes the time response of the reflectivity as calculated from the initial growth curves and does not represent a saturated grating reflectivity.

Equations (4)

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n ( z ) = n 0 + Δ n cos ( 2 π Λ z ) ,
R = tanh 2 ( κ L ) ,
δ n ( z , t ) δ t = B ( λ ) I 2 ( z , t ) ,
ln ( 1 + R 1 - R ) = 2 π B ( λ ) I 2 Δ t L λ 0 .

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