Abstract

We report characterization of annealed proton-exchanged waveguides in LiNbO3. Effective-mode indices and fundamental-mode intensity profiles were measured for a variety of fabrication conditions. Index profile, depth, and surface refractive-index change were determined versus exchange depth and anneal time and are presented in a universal form. An empirical concentration-dependent diffusion model describing the annealing process is presented. The refractive-index dispersion in proton-exchanged and annealed proton-exchanged waveguides was determined for wavelengths between 0.4 and 1.1 μm.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. K. Wong, A. C. G. Nutt, D. F. Clark, J. Winfield, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 113 (1986).
  4. P. G. Suchoski, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, Opt. Lett. 13, 1050 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. J. Veselka, G. A. Bogert, Electron. Lett. 23, 265 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, Appl. Opt. 15, 151 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. K. Wong, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 13 (1988).
  8. S. T. Vohra, A. R. Mickelson, S. E. Asher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 5161 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. Charczenko, M. Surette, A. R. Mickelson, in Digest of Conference on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), TUC3.
  10. C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, W. L. Brown, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4437 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. E. Rice, J. Solid State Chem. 64, 188 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. S. Son, H. J. Lee, S. Y. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 184 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 270 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  15. The Sellmeier expression used was Δne2 = a1 + a2/(λ2 − a32). The coefficients for the PE and APE waveguides are, respectively, a1 = 7.43 × 10−3, a2 = 2.64 × 10−3, a3 = 0.336 and a1 = 3.43 × 10−5, a2 = 1.10 × 10−5, a3 = 0.326.

1991 (1)

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

Y. S. Son, H. J. Lee, S. Y. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 184 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

S. T. Vohra, A. R. Mickelson, S. E. Asher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 5161 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

K. K. Wong, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 13 (1988).

P. G. Suchoski, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, Opt. Lett. 13, 1050 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. J. Veselka, G. A. Bogert, Electron. Lett. 23, 265 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

K. K. Wong, A. C. G. Nutt, D. F. Clark, J. Winfield, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 113 (1986).

C. E. Rice, J. Solid State Chem. 64, 188 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, W. L. Brown, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4437 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 270 (1975).
[Crossref]

Asher, S. E.

S. T. Vohra, A. R. Mickelson, S. E. Asher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 5161 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bogert, G. A.

J. J. Veselka, G. A. Bogert, Electron. Lett. 23, 265 (1987).
[Crossref]

Brown, W. L.

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, W. L. Brown, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4437 (1985).
[Crossref]

Burns, W. K.

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593 (1991).
[Crossref]

G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 270 (1975).
[Crossref]

Charczenko, W.

W. Charczenko, M. Surette, A. R. Mickelson, in Digest of Conference on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), TUC3.

Clark, D. F.

K. K. Wong, A. C. G. Nutt, D. F. Clark, J. Winfield, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 113 (1986).

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218 (1983).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R. M.

K. K. Wong, A. C. G. Nutt, D. F. Clark, J. Winfield, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 113 (1986).

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218 (1983).
[Crossref]

Findakly, T. K.

Greenblatt, A. S.

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593 (1991).
[Crossref]

Heidrich, P. F.

Hocker, G. B.

G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 270 (1975).
[Crossref]

Howerton, M. M.

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jackel, J. L.

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, W. L. Brown, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4437 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
[Crossref]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

K. K. Wong, A. C. G. Nutt, D. F. Clark, J. Winfield, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 113 (1986).

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218 (1983).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

Y. S. Son, H. J. Lee, S. Y. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 184 (1990).
[Crossref]

Leonberger, F. J.

Mickelson, A. R.

S. T. Vohra, A. R. Mickelson, S. E. Asher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 5161 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. Charczenko, M. Surette, A. R. Mickelson, in Digest of Conference on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), TUC3.

Nutt, A. C. G.

K. K. Wong, A. C. G. Nutt, D. F. Clark, J. Winfield, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 113 (1986).

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218 (1983).
[Crossref]

Rice, C. E.

C. E. Rice, J. Solid State Chem. 64, 188 (1986).
[Crossref]

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, W. L. Brown, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4437 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
[Crossref]

Shin, S. Y.

Y. S. Son, H. J. Lee, S. Y. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 184 (1990).
[Crossref]

Skeath, P. R.

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593 (1991).
[Crossref]

Son, Y. S.

Y. S. Son, H. J. Lee, S. Y. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 184 (1990).
[Crossref]

Suchoski, P. G.

Surette, M.

W. Charczenko, M. Surette, A. R. Mickelson, in Digest of Conference on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), TUC3.

Veselka, J. J.

J. J. Veselka, G. A. Bogert, Electron. Lett. 23, 265 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
[Crossref]

Vohra, S. T.

S. T. Vohra, A. R. Mickelson, S. E. Asher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 5161 (1989).
[Crossref]

White, J. M.

Winfield, J.

K. K. Wong, A. C. G. Nutt, D. F. Clark, J. Winfield, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 113 (1986).

Wong, K. K.

K. K. Wong, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 13 (1988).

K. K. Wong, A. C. G. Nutt, D. F. Clark, J. Winfield, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 113 (1986).

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218 (1983).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. J. Veselka, G. A. Bogert, Electron. Lett. 23, 265 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc. Pt. J (1)

K. K. Wong, A. C. G. Nutt, D. F. Clark, J. Winfield, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, IEE Proc. Pt. J 133, 113 (1986).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593 (1991).
[Crossref]

G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 270 (1975).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. S. Son, H. J. Lee, S. Y. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 184 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, W. L. Brown, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4437 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218 (1983).
[Crossref]

S. T. Vohra, A. R. Mickelson, S. E. Asher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 5161 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

C. E. Rice, J. Solid State Chem. 64, 188 (1986).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

K. K. Wong, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 13 (1988).

Other (2)

W. Charczenko, M. Surette, A. R. Mickelson, in Digest of Conference on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), TUC3.

The Sellmeier expression used was Δne2 = a1 + a2/(λ2 − a32). The coefficients for the PE and APE waveguides are, respectively, a1 = 7.43 × 10−3, a2 = 2.64 × 10−3, a3 = 0.336 and a1 = 3.43 × 10−5, a2 = 1.10 × 10−5, a3 = 0.326.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

IWKB refractive-index profiles for APE waveguides with (a) de = 0.50 μm, (b) de = 0.30 μm, and various anneal times. The curves are the results of the model described in the text. Note the systematic error in the model for the shortest anneal time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized index change and waveguide depth versus the square root of the normalized anneal time. The dashed line and curve are the predictions of linear diffusion theory with D0 = 0.55 μm2/h. The solid curves are the results of the nonlinear diffusion model described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (λ = 0.458 μm) and calculated fundamental-mode intensity profiles for waveguides with de = 0.15 μm and different anneal times.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dispersion in PE and APE waveguides. The circled point, for an x-cut PE waveguide, is from Ref. 3.

Equations (1)

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D ( C ) = D 0 [ a + ( 1 - a ) exp ( - b C ) ] ,

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