Abstract

We report characterization of annealed proton-exchanged waveguides in LiNbO3. Effective-mode indices and fundamental-mode intensity profiles were measured for a variety of fabrication conditions. Index profile, depth, and surface refractive-index change were determined versus exchange depth and anneal time and are presented in a universal form. An empirical concentration-dependent diffusion model describing the annealing process is presented. The refractive-index dispersion in proton-exchanged and annealed proton-exchanged waveguides was determined for wavelengths between 0.4 and 1.1 μm.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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