Abstract

A large second-order nonlinearity [ χ(2)~1pm/V~0.2χ22(2) for LiNbO3] is induced in the near-surface (~4 μm) region of commercial fused-silica optical flats by a temperature (250–325°C) and electric-field (E ~ 5 × 104 V/cm) poling process. Once formed, the nonlinearity, which is roughly 103–104 times larger than that found in fiber second-harmonic experiments, is extremely stable at room temperature and laboratory ambient. The nonlinearity can be cycled by repeated depoling (temperature only) and repoling (temperature and electric field) processes without history effects. Possible mechanisms, including nonlinear moieties and electric-field-induced second-order nonlinearities, are discussed.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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1991 (1)

1990 (1)

A. Mukherjee, S. R. J. Brueck, A. Y. Wu, Opt. Commun. 76, 220 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

R. H. Stolen, H. W. K. Tom, Opt. Lett. 12, 587 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1979 (1)

K. L. Brower, Phys. Rev. B 20, 1799 (1979).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

M. D. Levenson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 110 (1974).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

Anderson, D. Z.

Bergot, M.-V.

Brower, K. L.

K. L. Brower, Phys. Rev. B 20, 1799 (1979).
[Crossref]

Brueck, S. R. J.

A. Mukherjee, S. R. J. Brueck, A. Y. Wu, Opt. Commun. 76, 220 (1990).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, I. C. S.

I. C. S. Carvalho, P. M. P. Gouvea, W. Margulis, J. P. von der Weid, B. Lesche, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuA3.

DiMaria, D. J.

D. J. DiMaria, in The Physics of SiO2 and Its Interfaces: Proceedings of the International Topical Conference, S. T. Pantelides, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 160.

Farries, M. C.

Frankel, M.

A. Kamal, M. L. Stock, A. Szpak, C. H. Thomas, D. A. Weinberger, M. Frankel, J. Nees, K. Ozaki, J. Valdmanis, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper PD25.

Gouvea, P. M. P.

I. C. S. Carvalho, P. M. P. Gouvea, W. Margulis, J. P. von der Weid, B. Lesche, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuA3.

Kamal, A.

A. Kamal, M. L. Stock, A. Szpak, C. H. Thomas, D. A. Weinberger, M. Frankel, J. Nees, K. Ozaki, J. Valdmanis, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper PD25.

Lesche, B.

I. C. S. Carvalho, P. M. P. Gouvea, W. Margulis, J. P. von der Weid, B. Lesche, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuA3.

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 110 (1974).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Malitson, I. H.

Margulis, W.

U. Österberg, W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 11, 516 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. C. S. Carvalho, P. M. P. Gouvea, W. Margulis, J. P. von der Weid, B. Lesche, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuA3.

Mizrahi, V.

Mukherjee, A.

A. Mukherjee, S. R. J. Brueck, A. Y. Wu, Opt. Commun. 76, 220 (1990).
[Crossref]

Nees, J.

A. Kamal, M. L. Stock, A. Szpak, C. H. Thomas, D. A. Weinberger, M. Frankel, J. Nees, K. Ozaki, J. Valdmanis, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper PD25.

Österberg, U.

Ozaki, K.

A. Kamal, M. L. Stock, A. Szpak, C. H. Thomas, D. A. Weinberger, M. Frankel, J. Nees, K. Ozaki, J. Valdmanis, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper PD25.

Poyntz-Wright, L. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sipe, J. E.

Smithson, A.

Stock, M. L.

A. Kamal, M. L. Stock, A. Szpak, C. H. Thomas, D. A. Weinberger, M. Frankel, J. Nees, K. Ozaki, J. Valdmanis, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper PD25.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, H. W. K. Tom, Opt. Lett. 12, 587 (1987).
[Crossref]

Szpak, A.

A. Kamal, M. L. Stock, A. Szpak, C. H. Thomas, D. A. Weinberger, M. Frankel, J. Nees, K. Ozaki, J. Valdmanis, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper PD25.

Thomas, C. H.

A. Kamal, M. L. Stock, A. Szpak, C. H. Thomas, D. A. Weinberger, M. Frankel, J. Nees, K. Ozaki, J. Valdmanis, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper PD25.

Tom, H. W. K.

R. H. Stolen, H. W. K. Tom, Opt. Lett. 12, 587 (1987).
[Crossref]

Valdmanis, J.

A. Kamal, M. L. Stock, A. Szpak, C. H. Thomas, D. A. Weinberger, M. Frankel, J. Nees, K. Ozaki, J. Valdmanis, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper PD25.

von der Weid, J. P.

I. C. S. Carvalho, P. M. P. Gouvea, W. Margulis, J. P. von der Weid, B. Lesche, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuA3.

Weinberger, D. A.

A. Kamal, M. L. Stock, A. Szpak, C. H. Thomas, D. A. Weinberger, M. Frankel, J. Nees, K. Ozaki, J. Valdmanis, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper PD25.

Wu, A. Y.

A. Mukherjee, S. R. J. Brueck, A. Y. Wu, Opt. Commun. 76, 220 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. D. Levenson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 110 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Mukherjee, S. R. J. Brueck, A. Y. Wu, Opt. Commun. 76, 220 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

K. L. Brower, Phys. Rev. B 20, 1799 (1979).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

D. J. DiMaria, in The Physics of SiO2 and Its Interfaces: Proceedings of the International Topical Conference, S. T. Pantelides, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 160.

D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, eds., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, New York, 1987).

A. Kamal, M. L. Stock, A. Szpak, C. H. Thomas, D. A. Weinberger, M. Frankel, J. Nees, K. Ozaki, J. Valdmanis, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper PD25.

I. C. S. Carvalho, P. M. P. Gouvea, W. Margulis, J. P. von der Weid, B. Lesche, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuA3.

Heraeus Amersil Quartz Catalog, Heraeus Amersil Inc., 100 Heraeus Boulevard, Bedford, Calif. 30518.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SHG signal from a poled Optosil sample versus the angle of incidence for a TM-polarized fundamental beam at 1.06 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SHG signal versus the poling voltage for a fixed temperature and poling time. The signal was obtained on a single sample with successive polings at higher poling voltages.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SHG signal versus the etch depth as the material is successively etched away for two samples with identical poling voltages (5 kV) and temperatures (280°C) but different poling times.

Equations (2)

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P z 2 w = 2 0 [ χ 31 ( 2 ) ( E x 2 + E y 2 ) + χ 33 ( 2 ) E z 2 ] .
P 2 w ( L ) P ( 0 ) 2 × [ exp ( - 2 α L ) + 1 - 2 exp ( - 2 α L ) cos Δ k L Δ k 2 + α 2 ] ,

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