Abstract

Photoinduced refractive-index changes in two-mode, elliptical-core optical fibers are shown to affect the differential phase modulation between the LP01 and the LP11even modes. This change in beat length is dependent on the amount of strain induced in the fiber while the grating is being formed. We present experimental results that agree with conventional coupled-mode theory and propose the use of such sensors for weighted and distributed applications.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 3, 66 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. G. Park, B. Y. Kim, Electron. Lett. 25, 797 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. G. Park, S. Y. Huang, B. Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 14, 877 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. Ouellette, Opt. Lett. 16, 303 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Opt. Lett.15, 399 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds., Vol. 44 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 526.
    [Crossref]
  9. J. N. Blake, S. Y. Huang, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 12, 732 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Bailey, J. E. Hubbard, AIAA J. Guid. Contr. 8, 605 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  12. C.-K. Lee, F. C. Moon, J. Appl. Mech. 57, 434 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. M. Vengsarkar, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 27, 931 (1991).
    [Crossref]

1991 (2)

F. Ouellette, Opt. Lett. 16, 303 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 27, 931 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

C.-K. Lee, F. C. Moon, J. Appl. Mech. 57, 434 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (3)

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

T. Bailey, J. E. Hubbard, AIAA J. Guid. Contr. 8, 605 (1985).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 3, 66 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, T.

T. Bailey, J. E. Hubbard, AIAA J. Guid. Contr. 8, 605 (1985).
[Crossref]

Blake, J. N.

Claus, R. O.

A. M. Vengsarkar, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 27, 931 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fogg, B. R.

A. M. Vengsarkar, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 27, 931 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fujii, Y.

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 3, 66 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Glenn, W. H.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds., Vol. 44 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 526.
[Crossref]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 3, 66 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S. Y.

Hubbard, J. E.

T. Bailey, J. E. Hubbard, AIAA J. Guid. Contr. 8, 605 (1985).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 3, 66 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawasaki, B. S.

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 3, 66 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. Y.

LaRochelle, S.

S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Opt. Lett.15, 399 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-K.

C.-K. Lee, F. C. Moon, J. Appl. Mech. 57, 434 (1990).
[Crossref]

Meltz, G.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds., Vol. 44 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 526.
[Crossref]

Miller, M. S.

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
[Crossref]

Miller, W. V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 27, 931 (1991).
[Crossref]

Mizrahi, V.

S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Opt. Lett.15, 399 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, F. C.

C.-K. Lee, F. C. Moon, J. Appl. Mech. 57, 434 (1990).
[Crossref]

Morey, W. W.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds., Vol. 44 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 526.
[Crossref]

Murphy, K. A.

A. M. Vengsarkar, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 27, 931 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ouellette, F.

Park, H. G.

Shaw, H. J.

Simmons, K. D.

S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Opt. Lett.15, 399 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sipe, J.

S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Opt. Lett.15, 399 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G.

S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Opt. Lett.15, 399 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 27, 931 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
[Crossref]

AIAA J. Guid. Contr. (1)

T. Bailey, J. E. Hubbard, AIAA J. Guid. Contr. 8, 605 (1985).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. G. Park, B. Y. Kim, Electron. Lett. 25, 797 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. M. Vengsarkar, B. R. Fogg, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 27, 931 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Mech. (1)

C.-K. Lee, F. C. Moon, J. Appl. Mech. 57, 434 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, K. D. Simmons, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Opt. Lett.15, 399 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds., Vol. 44 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 526.
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photoinduced refractive-index changes in a two-mode fiber. (b) Simplified model for theoretical analysis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical plot of the beat-length variation with induced strain. The dotted line indicates the beat length of the fiber before exposure to the writing beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results showing the variation of beat lengths with strain induced in a fiber with a grating, (a) Fiber with no strain during grating writing, (b) fiber with 0.7% strain, (c) fiber with 1.4% strain, (d) fiber with 1.8% strain. The filled circles are experimental data points, and the solid curves are best fits. The experimental error in the beat-length measurement is 5 μm.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A 01 ( z ) = exp ( i δ z 2 ) ( cos η z i δ 2 η sin η z ) ,
A 11 ( z ) = exp ( i δ z 2 ) ( γ η sin η z ) ,
η 2 = | γ | 2 + ( δ / 2 ) 2 ,
γ = ( ω ɛ 0 n av Δ n / π ) 0 a d ρ 0 π d φ ψ 01 ψ 11 * ,
δ = Δ β 2 π Λ + ( C 01 C 11 ) .
C l m = ( ω ɛ 0 n av Δ n / π ) 0 a d ρ 0 π d φ | ψ l m | 2 .

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