Abstract

Nondegenerate four-wave mixing was used to write permanent distributed-feedback refractive-index gratings in a Ce3+-doped (80 parts in 106), aluminosilicate, single-mode glass optical fibser at 300 K with a corresponding change in the refractive index Δn = 2.5 × 10−5 at 808 nm. Direct excitation of the 2F5/2−5d transition at 292 nm results in the photoionization of Ce3+ and the creation of color centers. The photoinduced absorption recovered on wavelength-dependent time scales ranging from seconds to hours. Below approximately 450 nm the recovery was incomplete, which contributed to the observed refractive-index change.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Malo, K. A. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D.C. Johnson, K.O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 15, 953 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Meltz, W.W. Morey, W.H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. H. Stolen, in Nonlinear Waves in Solid State Physics, A.D. Boardman, M. Bertolotti, T. Twardowski, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1990), p. 297.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Stroud, J. Chem. Phys. 35, 844 (1961);J. Chem. Phys. 37, 836 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, W. J. Miniscalco, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kawazoe, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 71, 231 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Chandra, N. Takenchi, S. R. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 144 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Zhenan, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 337 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. I. Prokhorova, O. M. Ostrogina, Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 7, 458 (1981).
  10. L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Hegarty, L. G. Cohen, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, L. L. Blyler, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WB-2.
  12. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.
  13. E. G. Behrens, R. C. Powell, D. H. Blackburn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1437 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. K. Gayen, D. S. Hamilton, Phys. Rev. B 28, 3706 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Dong, P. J. Wells, D. P. Hand, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuB2.

1990 (2)

1989 (3)

G. Meltz, W.W. Morey, W.H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, W. J. Miniscalco, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

H. Kawazoe, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 71, 231 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. K. Gayen, D. S. Hamilton, Phys. Rev. B 28, 3706 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. Zhenan, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 337 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

T. I. Prokhorova, O. M. Ostrogina, Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 7, 458 (1981).

1972 (1)

S. Chandra, N. Takenchi, S. R. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 144 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

J. S. Stroud, J. Chem. Phys. 35, 844 (1961);J. Chem. Phys. 37, 836 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Behrens, E. G.

Bilodeau, F.

B. Malo, K. A. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D.C. Johnson, K.O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 15, 953 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Blackburn, D. H.

Blyler, L. L.

J. Hegarty, L. G. Cohen, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, L. L. Blyler, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WB-2.

Chandra, S.

S. Chandra, N. Takenchi, S. R. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 144 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. G.

J. Hegarty, L. G. Cohen, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, L. L. Blyler, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WB-2.

Dong, L.

L. Dong, P. J. Wells, D. P. Hand, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuB2.

Gayen, S. K.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, W. J. Miniscalco, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Gayen, D. S. Hamilton, Phys. Rev. B 28, 3706 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ghen, R. D.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, W. J. Miniscalco, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W.H.

Hamilton, D. S.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, W. J. Miniscalco, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Gayen, D. S. Hamilton, Phys. Rev. B 28, 3706 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

L. Dong, P. J. Wells, D. P. Hand, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuB2.

Hartmann, S. R.

S. Chandra, N. Takenchi, S. R. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 144 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hegarty, J.

J. Hegarty, L. G. Cohen, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, L. L. Blyler, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WB-2.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Hill, K.O.

Johnson, D.C.

Johnston, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Kawazoe, H.

H. Kawazoe, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 71, 231 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kilian, A.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

MacChesney, J. B.

J. Hegarty, L. G. Cohen, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, L. L. Blyler, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WB-2.

Malo, B.

B. Malo, K. A. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D.C. Johnson, K.O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 15, 953 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Meltz, G.

Miniscalco, W. J.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, W. J. Miniscalco, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W.W.

Morse, T. F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Oh, K.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Ostrogina, O. M.

T. I. Prokhorova, O. M. Ostrogina, Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 7, 458 (1981).

Payne, D. N.

L. Dong, P. J. Wells, D. P. Hand, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuB2.

Pogatshnik, G. J.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, W. J. Miniscalco, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

Poyntz-Wright, L. J.

L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorova, T. I.

T. I. Prokhorova, O. M. Ostrogina, Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 7, 458 (1981).

Reinhart, L.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Russell, P. St. J.

L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

J. Hegarty, L. G. Cohen, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, L. L. Blyler, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WB-2.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, in Nonlinear Waves in Solid State Physics, A.D. Boardman, M. Bertolotti, T. Twardowski, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1990), p. 297.
[CrossRef]

Stroud, J. S.

J. S. Stroud, J. Chem. Phys. 35, 844 (1961);J. Chem. Phys. 37, 836 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Takenchi, N.

S. Chandra, N. Takenchi, S. R. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 144 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Vineberg, K. A.

Wells, P. J.

L. Dong, P. J. Wells, D. P. Hand, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuB2.

Zhenan, G.

G. Zhenan, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 337 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Chandra, N. Takenchi, S. R. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 144 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. S. Stroud, J. Chem. Phys. 35, 844 (1961);J. Chem. Phys. 37, 836 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

G. Zhenan, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 337 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawazoe, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 71, 231 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshnik, R. D. Ghen, W. J. Miniscalco, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Gayen, D. S. Hamilton, Phys. Rev. B 28, 3706 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. (1)

T. I. Prokhorova, O. M. Ostrogina, Sov. J. Glass Phys. Chem. 7, 458 (1981).

Other (4)

J. Hegarty, L. G. Cohen, J. R. Simpson, J. B. MacChesney, L. L. Blyler, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WB-2.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

R. H. Stolen, in Nonlinear Waves in Solid State Physics, A.D. Boardman, M. Bertolotti, T. Twardowski, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1990), p. 297.
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, P. J. Wells, D. P. Hand, D. N. Payne, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper JTuB2.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for side writing a distributed-feedback grating in a Ce3+-doped silica glass fiber with a single UV write beam and a right-angle prism. L's, 10× microscope objectives; F, second-order cutoff filter; PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmitted intensity / through Ce3+-doped silica fiber at 740 nm during and after UV excitation of Ce3+. (b) UV-induced attenuation Δα versus wavelength λ for different delays after a 550-s exposure period: top curve, zero delay; middle curve, 600-s delay; bottom curve, 5-day delay.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmitted intensity / versus wavelength λ showing a reduction at approximately 808 nm owing to the formation of a reflective, distributed-feedback grating at this wavelength. The measured bandwidth was 0.18 nm; the instrumental resolution is indicated by the bar: 0.075 nm.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i = sin 1 ( n w sin { π / 4 sin 1 [ ( n r λ w ) / ( n w λ r ) ] } ) ,

Metrics