Abstract

A method for the measurement of fast, intensity-dependent refractive-index changes with the use of a modified Sagnac ring interferometer is presented. The measurement is not degraded by slowly responding background index changes. Nonlinear refractive-index changes in an undoped silicon wafer, and in poly-bis toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene and dye-doped polymethyl methacrylate waveguides, were measured with the use of a cw mode-locked Nd:YAG laser.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. See, for example, T. Y. Chang, Opt. Eng. 20, 220 (1981).
  2. S. Ezekiel, H. J. Arditty, eds., Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).
  3. R. K. Jain, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 454 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. W. Dirk, M. G. Kuzyk, Chem. Mater. 2, 4 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1628 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. G. Kuzyk, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 842 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. G. Kuzyk, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1436, 160 (1991).
  8. C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. P. Hermann, P. W. Smith, in Proceedings of Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 656.
  10. D. M. Krol, M. Thakur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1406 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Trebino, C. C. Hayden, Opt. Lett. 16, 493 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. G. Eichmann, Y. Li, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Eng. 25, 091 (1986).
  13. H. Avramopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, H. H. Houh, N. A. Whitaker, T. Morse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 235 (1991).
    [Crossref]

1991 (3)

M. G. Kuzyk, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1436, 160 (1991).

R. Trebino, C. C. Hayden, Opt. Lett. 16, 493 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Avramopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, H. H. Houh, N. A. Whitaker, T. Morse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 235 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

M. G. Kuzyk, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 842 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. M. Krol, M. Thakur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1406 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. W. Dirk, M. G. Kuzyk, Chem. Mater. 2, 4 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1628 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

G. Eichmann, Y. Li, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Eng. 25, 091 (1986).

1981 (1)

See, for example, T. Y. Chang, Opt. Eng. 20, 220 (1981).

1979 (1)

R. K. Jain, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 454 (1979).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

G. Eichmann, Y. Li, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Eng. 25, 091 (1986).

Avramopoulos, H.

H. Avramopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, H. H. Houh, N. A. Whitaker, T. Morse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 235 (1991).
[Crossref]

Baughman, R. H.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
[Crossref]

Chance, R. R.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
[Crossref]

Chang, T. Y.

See, for example, T. Y. Chang, Opt. Eng. 20, 220 (1981).

Dirk, C. W.

C. W. Dirk, M. G. Kuzyk, Chem. Mater. 2, 4 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. G. Kuzyk, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 842 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1628 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ducuing, J.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
[Crossref]

Eichmann, G.

G. Eichmann, Y. Li, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Eng. 25, 091 (1986).

French, P. M. W.

H. Avramopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, H. H. Houh, N. A. Whitaker, T. Morse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 235 (1991).
[Crossref]

Frey, R.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
[Crossref]

Gabriel, M. C.

H. Avramopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, H. H. Houh, N. A. Whitaker, T. Morse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 235 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hayden, C. C.

Hermann, J. P.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. P. Hermann, P. W. Smith, in Proceedings of Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 656.

Houh, H. H.

H. Avramopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, H. H. Houh, N. A. Whitaker, T. Morse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 235 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jain, R. K.

R. K. Jain, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 454 (1979).
[Crossref]

Klein, M. B.

R. K. Jain, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 454 (1979).
[Crossref]

Krol, D. M.

D. M. Krol, M. Thakur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1406 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kuzyk, M. G.

M. G. Kuzyk, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1436, 160 (1991).

C. W. Dirk, M. G. Kuzyk, Chem. Mater. 2, 4 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. G. Kuzyk, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 842 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1628 (1989).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

G. Eichmann, Y. Li, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Eng. 25, 091 (1986).

Morse, T.

H. Avramopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, H. H. Houh, N. A. Whitaker, T. Morse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 235 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pradere, F.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
[Crossref]

Sauteret, C.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. W.

J. P. Hermann, P. W. Smith, in Proceedings of Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 656.

Sohn, J. E.

Thakur, M.

D. M. Krol, M. Thakur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1406 (1990).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

Whitaker, N. A.

H. Avramopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, H. H. Houh, N. A. Whitaker, T. Morse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 235 (1991).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. K. Jain, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 454 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1628 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. M. Krol, M. Thakur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1406 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

C. W. Dirk, M. G. Kuzyk, Chem. Mater. 2, 4 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Avramopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, H. H. Houh, N. A. Whitaker, T. Morse, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 235 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

See, for example, T. Y. Chang, Opt. Eng. 20, 220 (1981).

G. Eichmann, Y. Li, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Eng. 25, 091 (1986).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, R. R. Chance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956 (1976).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

M. G. Kuzyk, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1436, 160 (1991).

Other (2)

J. P. Hermann, P. W. Smith, in Proceedings of Eleventh International Quantum Electronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1980), p. 656.

S. Ezekiel, H. J. Arditty, eds., Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensors and Related Technologies (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sagnac measurement using a Babinet-Soleil compensator for bias.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferometer fringe pattern showing changes caused by nonlinear phase shifts and nonlinear absorption at different bias points.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results from Sagnac measurement: (a) 100-μm-thick double-polished Si wafer. The data, taken at four separate compensator wedge positions, correspond to A–D in the inset linear transmission curve. (b) 1.4-cm-long, single-mode inverted rib waveguide of polymethyl methacrylate/2% squarylium dye, with data shown for the two half-power points of the linear transmission. (c) 1.8-mm-Iong multimode poly-bis toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sagnac measurement configuration with a cross-polarized pump beam.

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