Abstract

A combination of 100-fs cross-correlation time gating and lock-in amplifier detection is shown to be a versatile technique to image objects hidden in highly scattering media. The image is formed from the ballistic component of the ultrafast laser pulse while the diffuse component is eliminated by time gating using cross-correlation second-harmonic generation. The low-noise lock-in amplifier detection method and the high-repetition-rate milliwatt pulsed laser enable us to image through a random medium as thick as 28 scattering mean free paths with submillimeter resolution.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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1991

1990

1989

1987

E. A. Sickles, Recent Results Cancer Res. 105, 31 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

R. Lafrenuere, F. S. Ashkar, A. S. Ketcham, Am. Surg. 52, 123 (1986).

1985

Y. Kuga, A. Ishimaru, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 2330 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Tam, A. Zardecki, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 6, 249 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

A. Zardecki, S. A. W. Gertl, J. F. Embury, Appl. Opt. 23, 4142 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

1978

1973

1971

1969

1968

1964

Ahmed, S. A.

K. M. Yoo, Z. W. Zang, S. A. Ahmed, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in scattering media using the fluorescence-absorption technique,”Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Alfano, R. R.

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 15, 320 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Ho, P. Baldeck, K. S. Wong, K. M. Yoo, D. Lee, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 28, 2304 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano, N. Ockman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 90 (1968).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Yoo, Z. W. Zang, S. A. Ahmed, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in scattering media using the fluorescence-absorption technique,”Opt. Lett. (to be published).

L. M. Wang, Y. Liu, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic imaging of biomedical samples using picosecond optical Kerr gate,” in Proceedings of OE LASE ’91: Symposium on Biomedical Optics (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., to be published).

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging through a scattering wall using absorption,”Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Andersson-Engels, S.

Ashkar, F. S.

R. Lafrenuere, F. S. Ashkar, A. S. Ketcham, Am. Surg. 52, 123 (1986).

Baldeck, P.

Berg, R.

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Cheung, R. L. T.

Dilworth, D.

Dilworth, D. S.

Embury, J. F.

A. Zardecki, S. A. W. Gertl, J. F. Embury, Appl. Opt. 23, 4142 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gertl, S. A. W.

A. Zardecki, S. A. W. Gertl, J. F. Embury, Appl. Opt. 23, 4142 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

Ho, P. P.

P. P. Ho, P. Baldeck, K. S. Wong, K. M. Yoo, D. Lee, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 28, 2304 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Wang, Y. Liu, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic imaging of biomedical samples using picosecond optical Kerr gate,” in Proceedings of OE LASE ’91: Symposium on Biomedical Optics (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., to be published).

Hufnagel, R. E.

Ishimaru, A.

Jarlman, O.

Ketcham, A. S.

R. Lafrenuere, F. S. Ashkar, A. S. Ketcham, Am. Surg. 52, 123 (1986).

Kopeika, N. S.

Kruger, R. A.

Kuga, Y.

Lafrenuere, R.

R. Lafrenuere, F. S. Ashkar, A. S. Ketcham, Am. Surg. 52, 123 (1986).

Lee, D.

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

Liu, F.

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging through a scattering wall using absorption,”Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Liu, Y.

L. M. Wang, Y. Liu, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic imaging of biomedical samples using picosecond optical Kerr gate,” in Proceedings of OE LASE ’91: Symposium on Biomedical Optics (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., to be published).

Lopez, J.

Lopez, J. L.

Lutomirski, R. F.

Ockman, N.

Shimizu, K.

Sickles, E. A.

E. A. Sickles, Recent Results Cancer Res. 105, 31 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanley, N. R.

Svanberg, S.

Tam, W. G.

W. G. Tam, A. Zardecki, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 6, 249 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J.

Wang, L. M.

L. M. Wang, Y. Liu, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic imaging of biomedical samples using picosecond optical Kerr gate,” in Proceedings of OE LASE ’91: Symposium on Biomedical Optics (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., to be published).

Wells, W.

Wong, K. S.

Yoo, K. M.

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 15, 320 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Ho, P. Baldeck, K. S. Wong, K. M. Yoo, D. Lee, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 28, 2304 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, Z. W. Zang, S. A. Ahmed, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in scattering media using the fluorescence-absorption technique,”Opt. Lett. (to be published).

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging through a scattering wall using absorption,”Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Yura, H. T.

Zang, Z. W.

K. M. Yoo, Z. W. Zang, S. A. Ahmed, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in scattering media using the fluorescence-absorption technique,”Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Zardecki, A.

W. G. Tam, A. Zardecki, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 6, 249 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Zardecki, S. A. W. Gertl, J. F. Embury, Appl. Opt. 23, 4142 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Am. Surg.

R. Lafrenuere, F. S. Ashkar, A. S. Ketcham, Am. Surg. 52, 123 (1986).

Appl. Opt.

Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves

W. G. Tam, A. Zardecki, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 6, 249 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Lett.

Recent Results Cancer Res.

E. A. Sickles, Recent Results Cancer Res. 105, 31 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. P. Baltes, ed., Inverse Source Problems in Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Dainty, ed., Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 203–278.

K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging through a scattering wall using absorption,”Opt. Lett. (to be published).

K. M. Yoo, Z. W. Zang, S. A. Ahmed, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in scattering media using the fluorescence-absorption technique,”Opt. Lett. (to be published).

L. M. Wang, Y. Liu, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic imaging of biomedical samples using picosecond optical Kerr gate,” in Proceedings of OE LASE ’91: Symposium on Biomedical Optics (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., to be published).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the imaging setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized SHG when the bar code made a complete horizontal scan. The one-dimensional images are obtained through a scattering medium 20 mm thick where z/ls is (a) 10, (b) 20, (c) 25, and (d) 28.

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