Abstract

Measurements of the spectral density of frequency fluctuations are reported for an actively stabilized cw Ti:sapphire laser. For a servo loop incorporating an intracavity translatable mirror and an external-cavity acousto-optic modulator, a linewidth of 1.0 kHz rms is obtained for the fluctuations of the laser frequency as recorded within the servo loop. The modulation index associated with the frequency deviations is considerably less than one over most of the Fourier spectrum, indicating operation in a domain of small phase noise for the fluctuations of the electric field.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See the special issue on solid state lasers, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995–1051 (1988).
  2. T. L. Boyd, H. J. Kimble, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuO1.
  3. P. A. Schulz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1039 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Schwarz Electro-Optics Titan cw Ti:Al2O3 laser.
  6. J. L. Hall, T. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 9, 502 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. L. Boyd, H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 120 (1986); T. L. Boyd, master’s thesis (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1987).
  9. C. Salomon, D. Hils, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, R. Kallenbach, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 75, 455 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, R. Kallenbach, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 75, 455 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

C. Salomon, D. Hils, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

See the special issue on solid state lasers, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995–1051 (1988).

P. A. Schulz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1039 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

T. L. Boyd, H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 120 (1986); T. L. Boyd, master’s thesis (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1987).

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, T. L.

T. L. Boyd, H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 120 (1986); T. L. Boyd, master’s thesis (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1987).

T. L. Boyd, H. J. Kimble, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuO1.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, D. S.

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

C. Salomon, D. Hils, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, T. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 9, 502 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T.

Hänsch, T. W.

W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, R. Kallenbach, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 75, 455 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hils, D.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kallenbach, R.

W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, R. Kallenbach, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 75, 455 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

T. L. Boyd, H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 120 (1986); T. L. Boyd, master’s thesis (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1987).

T. L. Boyd, H. J. Kimble, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuO1.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, C.

Schulz, P. A.

P. A. Schulz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1039 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. J.

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vassen, W.

W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, R. Kallenbach, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 75, 455 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, R. Kallenbach, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 75, 455 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

See the special issue on solid state lasers, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995–1051 (1988).

P. A. Schulz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1039 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

T. L. Boyd, H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 120 (1986); T. L. Boyd, master’s thesis (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1987).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, R. Kallenbach, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 75, 455 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Schwarz Electro-Optics Titan cw Ti:Al2O3 laser.

T. L. Boyd, H. J. Kimble, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuO1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Outline of the principal elements for frequency stabilization of the Ti:Al2O3 laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral density of laser frequency fluctuations Ψ(f) versus analysis frequency f for a servo employing only the intracavity PZT mirror. The large peak at f = 35 kHz is a calibration signal that results from an externally applied frequency dither of 3.5 kHz rms. The sharp spectral features near 30 kHz arise from noise peaking near the unity gain point of the servo. The data were acquired with an analysis bandwidth of 187 Hz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linewidth for frequency fluctuations Δν (filled circles) and modulation index δ = Δν(fc)/fc (crosses) versus cutoff frequency fc. The data are for a servo with an intracavity PZT mirror only.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral density of laser frequency fluctuations Ψ(f) (solid curves) versus analysis frequency f for a servo employing both the intracavity PZT mirror and an external-cavity AOM. The dotted curves are the equation Ψ(f) = f, with Ψ(f) < f indicating a domain of small modulation index. The dashed line in (a) gives the noise level with the reference cavity tuned far from resonance and is the open-loop noise floor.

Equations (1)

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Ψ ( f ) = 1 2 π 2 d τ exp ( 2 π i f τ ) δ Ω ( t ) δ Ω ( t + τ ) ,

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