Abstract

A novel waveguide coupler configuration consisting of two identical antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides is presented. The coupling length is a periodic function of the waveguide separation, and therefore a remote coupler can be realized.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Kokubun, T. Baba, T. Sakaki, Electron. Lett. 22, 892 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. L. Koch, U. Koren, G. D. Boyd, P. J. Corvini, M. A. Duguay, Electron. Lett. 23, 244 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, K. Iga, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Y. Mera, in Digest of Conference on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), TuBB5.
  6. D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 482 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. Jiang, J. Chrostowski, M. Fontane, Opt. Commun. 72, 180 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Kubica, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, Opt. Commun. 78, 133 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 232 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, H. Watanabe, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 99 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  11. Th. L. Koch, P. J. Corvini, W. T. Tsang, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1060 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Appl. Opt. 29, 2781 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Th. L. Koch, E. G. Burkhardt, F. G. Storz, Th. J. Bridges, Th. Sizer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 889 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Kokubun, T. Baba, in Digest of Opto-Electronics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990), paper 13B4-2.
  15. M. Mann, U. Trutschel, F. Lederer, L. Leine, Ch. Wächter, “Nonlinear leaky waveguide modulator,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.
  16. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974).
  17. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C. S. Hong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 423 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Salzman, G. Lenz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 319 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. Lenz, J. Salzman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 519 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), pp. 50–69.
  21. J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, E. S. Bliss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 353 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. R. Heatley, E. M. Wright, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 172 (1988).
    [Crossref]

1990 (5)

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 482 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Kubica, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, Opt. Commun. 78, 133 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, H. Watanabe, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 99 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. Lenz, J. Salzman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 519 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Appl. Opt. 29, 2781 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 232 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. Jiang, J. Chrostowski, M. Fontane, Opt. Commun. 72, 180 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Salzman, G. Lenz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 319 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, K. Iga, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[Crossref]

D. R. Heatley, E. M. Wright, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 172 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (3)

Th. L. Koch, E. G. Burkhardt, F. G. Storz, Th. J. Bridges, Th. Sizer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

Th. L. Koch, P. J. Corvini, W. T. Tsang, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1060 (1987).
[Crossref]

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, G. D. Boyd, P. J. Corvini, M. A. Duguay, Electron. Lett. 23, 244 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, T. Baba, T. Sakaki, Electron. Lett. 22, 892 (1986).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, E. S. Bliss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 353 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

Baba, T.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, H. Watanabe, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 99 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Appl. Opt. 29, 2781 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 232 (1989).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, K. Iga, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, T. Baba, T. Sakaki, Electron. Lett. 22, 892 (1986).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Y. Mera, in Digest of Conference on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), TuBB5.

Y. Kokubun, T. Baba, in Digest of Opto-Electronics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990), paper 13B4-2.

Bliss, E. S.

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, E. S. Bliss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 353 (1978).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), pp. 50–69.

Botez, D.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 482 (1990).
[Crossref]

Boyd, G. D.

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, G. D. Boyd, P. J. Corvini, M. A. Duguay, Electron. Lett. 23, 244 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bridges, Th. J.

Th. L. Koch, E. G. Burkhardt, F. G. Storz, Th. J. Bridges, Th. Sizer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

Burkhardt, E. G.

Th. L. Koch, E. G. Burkhardt, F. G. Storz, Th. J. Bridges, Th. Sizer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, J.

W. Jiang, J. Chrostowski, M. Fontane, Opt. Commun. 72, 180 (1989).
[Crossref]

Corvini, P. J.

Th. L. Koch, P. J. Corvini, W. T. Tsang, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1060 (1987).
[Crossref]

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, G. D. Boyd, P. J. Corvini, M. A. Duguay, Electron. Lett. 23, 244 (1987).
[Crossref]

Culshaw, B.

J. Kubica, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, Opt. Commun. 78, 133 (1990).
[Crossref]

Duguay, M. A.

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, G. D. Boyd, P. J. Corvini, M. A. Duguay, Electron. Lett. 23, 244 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[Crossref]

Fleck, J. A.

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, E. S. Bliss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 353 (1978).
[Crossref]

Fontane, M.

W. Jiang, J. Chrostowski, M. Fontane, Opt. Commun. 72, 180 (1989).
[Crossref]

Heatley, D. R.

D. R. Heatley, E. M. Wright, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 172 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hong, C. S.

Iga, K.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, K. Iga, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.

W. Jiang, J. Chrostowski, M. Fontane, Opt. Commun. 72, 180 (1989).
[Crossref]

Koch, T. L.

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, G. D. Boyd, P. J. Corvini, M. A. Duguay, Electron. Lett. 23, 244 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[Crossref]

Koch, Th. L.

Th. L. Koch, P. J. Corvini, W. T. Tsang, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1060 (1987).
[Crossref]

Th. L. Koch, E. G. Burkhardt, F. G. Storz, Th. J. Bridges, Th. Sizer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kokubun, Y.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Appl. Opt. 29, 2781 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, H. Watanabe, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 99 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 232 (1989).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, K. Iga, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, T. Baba, T. Sakaki, Electron. Lett. 22, 892 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Y. Mera, in Digest of Conference on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), TuBB5.

Y. Kokubun, T. Baba, in Digest of Opto-Electronics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990), paper 13B4-2.

Koren, U.

Th. L. Koch, P. J. Corvini, W. T. Tsang, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1060 (1987).
[Crossref]

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, G. D. Boyd, P. J. Corvini, M. A. Duguay, Electron. Lett. 23, 244 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kubica, J.

J. Kubica, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, Opt. Commun. 78, 133 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lederer, F.

M. Mann, U. Trutschel, F. Lederer, L. Leine, Ch. Wächter, “Nonlinear leaky waveguide modulator,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Leine, L.

M. Mann, U. Trutschel, F. Lederer, L. Leine, Ch. Wächter, “Nonlinear leaky waveguide modulator,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Lenz, G.

G. Lenz, J. Salzman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 519 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Salzman, G. Lenz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 319 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mann, M.

M. Mann, U. Trutschel, F. Lederer, L. Leine, Ch. Wächter, “Nonlinear leaky waveguide modulator,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974).

Mawst, L. J.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 482 (1990).
[Crossref]

Mera, Y.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Y. Mera, in Digest of Conference on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), TuBB5.

Miller, B. I.

Th. L. Koch, P. J. Corvini, W. T. Tsang, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1060 (1987).
[Crossref]

Morris, J. R.

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, E. S. Bliss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 353 (1978).
[Crossref]

Peterson, G. L.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 482 (1990).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[Crossref]

Roth, T. J.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 482 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sakaki, T.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, K. Iga, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun, T. Baba, T. Sakaki, Electron. Lett. 22, 892 (1986).
[Crossref]

Salzman, J.

G. Lenz, J. Salzman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 519 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Salzman, G. Lenz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 319 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sizer, Th.

Th. L. Koch, E. G. Burkhardt, F. G. Storz, Th. J. Bridges, Th. Sizer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

Stegeman, G. I.

D. R. Heatley, E. M. Wright, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 172 (1988).
[Crossref]

Storz, F. G.

Th. L. Koch, E. G. Burkhardt, F. G. Storz, Th. J. Bridges, Th. Sizer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

Trutschel, U.

M. Mann, U. Trutschel, F. Lederer, L. Leine, Ch. Wächter, “Nonlinear leaky waveguide modulator,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Tsang, W. T.

Th. L. Koch, P. J. Corvini, W. T. Tsang, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1060 (1987).
[Crossref]

Uttamchandani, D.

J. Kubica, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, Opt. Commun. 78, 133 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wächter, Ch.

M. Mann, U. Trutschel, F. Lederer, L. Leine, Ch. Wächter, “Nonlinear leaky waveguide modulator,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Watanabe, H.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, H. Watanabe, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 99 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), pp. 50–69.

Wright, E. M.

D. R. Heatley, E. M. Wright, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 172 (1988).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

Yeh, P.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Th. L. Koch, P. J. Corvini, W. T. Tsang, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1060 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[Crossref]

D. R. Heatley, E. M. Wright, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 172 (1988).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Kokubun, T. Baba, T. Sakaki, Electron. Lett. 22, 892 (1986).
[Crossref]

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, G. D. Boyd, P. J. Corvini, M. A. Duguay, Electron. Lett. 23, 244 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sakaki, K. Iga, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, H. Watanabe, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 99 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, T. J. Roth, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 482 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. Lenz, J. Salzman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 519 (1990).
[Crossref]

Th. L. Koch, E. G. Burkhardt, F. G. Storz, Th. J. Bridges, Th. Sizer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, E. S. Bliss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 353 (1978).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Salzman, G. Lenz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 319 (1989).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 232 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

W. Jiang, J. Chrostowski, M. Fontane, Opt. Commun. 72, 180 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Kubica, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, Opt. Commun. 78, 133 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, Y. Mera, in Digest of Conference on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), TuBB5.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), pp. 50–69.

Y. Kokubun, T. Baba, in Digest of Opto-Electronics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990), paper 13B4-2.

M. Mann, U. Trutschel, F. Lederer, L. Leine, Ch. Wächter, “Nonlinear leaky waveguide modulator,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the full symmetric coupler structure. d0 is the spacing layer, d1 is the guiding layer, and d2 and d3 are the antiresonant interference claddings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Real part of the complex propagation constant β versus the thickness of the spacing layer d0. The fixed parameters are n0 = n1 = n3 = 1.53, n2 = 1.69, d1 = 3.0 μm, d2 = 0.3585 μm, d3 = 1.5 μm, and λ = 1.06 μm. The labels sj (j = 0, 2, 4 …) stand for symmetric modes, and ai (i = 1, 3, 5, …) stand for antisymmetric modes; i and j label the number of nodes of the corresponding field profiles in the spacing layer d0. (b) Detail of the dispersion relation from (a). The relevant section for the coupler design is shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Real part of the electrical field of the symmetric mode (solid curve) and the antisymmetric mode (dashed curve). (b) Squared absolute value of the electrical-field strength at the propagation distances z = 0 (solid curve) and Lc = λ/(2|Δβ′|)(dashed curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Coupling length Lc = λ/(2|Δβ′|) of the ARROW coupler versus the thickness of the spacing layer d0. [Only superpositions of modes of the narrow band shown in Fig. 2(b) are allowed.]

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Field profile of the superposition of symmetric and antisymmetric leaky modes (dashed curve) and the appropriate tailored Gaussian beam (solid curve) that excites these modes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beam-propagation method simulation of the coupling process.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( x , z ) = μ = 1 N a μ ( z ) E μ ( x ) exp [ i ( k 0 β u z - ω t ) ] + c . c . ,
q c ( m 11 + q s m 12 ) + m 21 + q s m 22 = 0 ,
m = m L m 0 m R ,
m L = m R = m 2 m 3 m 2 m 1 m 2 m 3 m 2 ,
m i = [ cos k 0 k i x d i 1 k i x sin k 0 k i x d i - k i x sin k 0 k i x d i cos k 0 k i x d i ] ,
E ( x , z ) 2 = E i ( a ) ( x ) 2 exp [ - 2 k 0 β i ( a ) z ] + E j ( s ) ( x ) 2 exp [ - 2 k 0 β j ( s ) z ] + 2 exp { - k 0 [ β i ( a ) + β j ( s ) ] z } × ( R [ E i ( a ) ( x ) E j ( s ) * ( x ) ] cos { k 0 [ β i ( a ) - β j ( s ) ] z } - F [ E i ( a ) ( x ) E j ( s ) * ( x ) ] sin { k 0 [ β i ( a ) - β j ( s ) ] z } ) .

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