Abstract

A six-stage birefringent filter placed in an external cavity of an AlGaAs diode laser is used to scan the laser electronically over 10.3 nm, hopping single modes of the external cavity. Continuous electronic tuning of the single mode over the free spectral range of the external cavity, 182 MHz, is also demonstrated by using a variable-phase plate. All tuning mechanisms use nematic liquid-crystal electro-optic effects operating at <2 V.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Okoshi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 44 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. M. Strezelecki, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1610 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. C. Burrows, K.-Y. Liou, Electron. Lett. 26, 577 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Sheehy, S.-Q. Shang, R. Watts, S. Hatamian, H. Metcalf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2165 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Illek, W. Thulke, C. Schanen, H. Lang, M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 26, 46 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. L. Koch, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1036 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 903 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Tabuchi, H. Ishikawa, Electron. Lett. 26, 742 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Epler, N. Holonyak, R. D. Burnham, C. Lindstrom, W. Streifer, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 740 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Liu, M. G. Littman, Opt. Lett. 6, 117 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. T. Schemmer, C. L. Tang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 3 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Wyatt, W. J. Devlin, Electron. Lett. 19, 110 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Hidaka, T. Nakamoto, Electron. Lett. 25, 1320 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Walther, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 239 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Schremer, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 19 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S.-T. Wu, Appl. Opt. 28, 48 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. I. Kaye, “Liquid crystal tuned birefringent filter,” U.S. patent4,394,069 (July19, 1983).
  18. J. R. Andrews, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 334 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. W. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 229 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. M. Title, W. J. Rosenberg, Opt. Eng. 20, 815 (1981).
  21. G. D. Sharp, K. M. Johnson, D. Doroski, Opt. Lett. 15, 523 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (6)

E. C. Burrows, K.-Y. Liou, Electron. Lett. 26, 577 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Illek, W. Thulke, C. Schanen, H. Lang, M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 26, 46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Tabuchi, H. Ishikawa, Electron. Lett. 26, 742 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Schemmer, C. L. Tang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Andrews, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 334 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Sharp, K. M. Johnson, D. Doroski, Opt. Lett. 15, 523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (4)

1988 (2)

E. M. Strezelecki, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1610 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1036 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 903 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Okoshi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 44 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

J. E. Epler, N. Holonyak, R. D. Burnham, C. Lindstrom, W. Streifer, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 740 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Wyatt, W. J. Devlin, Electron. Lett. 19, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

K. Liu, M. G. Littman, Opt. Lett. 6, 117 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Title, W. J. Rosenberg, Opt. Eng. 20, 815 (1981).

1970 (1)

H. Walther, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 239 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

Amann, M.-C.

S. Illek, W. Thulke, C. Schanen, H. Lang, M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 26, 46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, J. R.

J. R. Andrews, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 334 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. D.

J. E. Epler, N. Holonyak, R. D. Burnham, C. Lindstrom, W. Streifer, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 740 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, E. C.

E. C. Burrows, K.-Y. Liou, Electron. Lett. 26, 577 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. A.

E. M. Strezelecki, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1610 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

E. M. Strezelecki, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1610 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 903 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 903 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Devlin, W. J.

R. Wyatt, W. J. Devlin, Electron. Lett. 19, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Doroski, D.

Epler, J. E.

J. E. Epler, N. Holonyak, R. D. Burnham, C. Lindstrom, W. Streifer, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 740 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. W.

Hall, J. L.

H. Walther, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 239 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hatamian, S.

Hidaka, T.

T. Hidaka, T. Nakamoto, Electron. Lett. 25, 1320 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Holonyak, N.

J. E. Epler, N. Holonyak, R. D. Burnham, C. Lindstrom, W. Streifer, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 740 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Illek, S.

S. Illek, W. Thulke, C. Schanen, H. Lang, M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 26, 46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

H. Tabuchi, H. Ishikawa, Electron. Lett. 26, 742 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. M.

Kaye, W. I.

W. I. Kaye, “Liquid crystal tuned birefringent filter,” U.S. patent4,394,069 (July19, 1983).

Koch, T. L.

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1036 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1036 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lang, H.

S. Illek, W. Thulke, C. Schanen, H. Lang, M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 26, 46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lindstrom, C.

J. E. Epler, N. Holonyak, R. D. Burnham, C. Lindstrom, W. Streifer, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 740 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K.-Y.

E. C. Burrows, K.-Y. Liou, Electron. Lett. 26, 577 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

Liu, K.

Metcalf, H.

Miller, B. I.

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1036 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nakamoto, T.

T. Hidaka, T. Nakamoto, Electron. Lett. 25, 1320 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 44 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Paoli, T. L.

J. E. Epler, N. Holonyak, R. D. Burnham, C. Lindstrom, W. Streifer, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 740 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, W. J.

A. M. Title, W. J. Rosenberg, Opt. Eng. 20, 815 (1981).

Schanen, C.

S. Illek, W. Thulke, C. Schanen, H. Lang, M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 26, 46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schemmer, A. T.

A. T. Schemmer, C. L. Tang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schremer, A.

A. Schremer, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shang, S.-Q.

Sharp, G. D.

Sheehy, B.

Streifer, W.

J. E. Epler, N. Holonyak, R. D. Burnham, C. Lindstrom, W. Streifer, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 740 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Strezelecki, E. M.

E. M. Strezelecki, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1610 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tabuchi, H.

H. Tabuchi, H. Ishikawa, Electron. Lett. 26, 742 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

A. T. Schemmer, C. L. Tang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Schremer, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thulke, W.

S. Illek, W. Thulke, C. Schanen, H. Lang, M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 26, 46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Title, A. M.

A. M. Title, W. J. Rosenberg, Opt. Eng. 20, 815 (1981).

Walther, H.

H. Walther, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 239 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Watts, R.

Wu, S.-T.

Wyatt, R.

R. Wyatt, W. J. Devlin, Electron. Lett. 19, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1036 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Epler, N. Holonyak, R. D. Burnham, C. Lindstrom, W. Streifer, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 740 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Walther, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 239 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. Schremer, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (5)

R. Wyatt, W. J. Devlin, Electron. Lett. 19, 110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Hidaka, T. Nakamoto, Electron. Lett. 25, 1320 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Burrows, K.-Y. Liou, Electron. Lett. 26, 577 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Illek, W. Thulke, C. Schanen, H. Lang, M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 26, 46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Tabuchi, H. Ishikawa, Electron. Lett. 26, 742 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Okoshi, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 44 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Strezelecki, D. A. Cohen, L. A. Coldren, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1610 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 903 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. T. Schemmer, C. L. Tang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Andrews, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 334 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. M. Title, W. J. Rosenberg, Opt. Eng. 20, 815 (1981).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

W. I. Kaye, “Liquid crystal tuned birefringent filter,” U.S. patent4,394,069 (July19, 1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration for the external-cavity laser. The birefringent filter consists of six stages. The inset shows a single stage of the filter in more detail. Each filter stage varies only in the thickness d of the LiNbO3 crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrometer analysis of the spectrum of the tunable laser at the wavelength scan center and extrema. The curves are offset vertically.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser spectrum viewed through a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer when the laser is tuned to external-cavity longitudinal modes within a single-diode longitudinal-mode group. The curves are offset vertically.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser spectrum viewed through a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer showing continuous tuning of the longitudinal mode. The curves are offset vertically. The apparent linewidth of 36 MHz is limited by the resolution of the interferometer.

Equations (1)

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T = cos 2 ( π i Δ n i d i λ ) ,

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