Abstract

The attenuation of incoherent infrared radiation for wavelengths from 6 to 20 μm was investigated for hollow sapphire and silica waveguides suitable for applications in spectroscopy and thermometry. A low-attenuation region was exhibited between 9.6 and 17.2 μm for hollow sapphire fibers and between 7.25 and 9.5 μm for hollow silica fibers as a result of the cladding index of refraction dipping below that of the air core (n ≈ 1). Losses have been characterized as a function of fiber diameter, launch conditions, and waveguide bend radius for cladding regions of both n > 1 and n < 1. In addition, the remote infrared sensing capability of the hollow waveguides was demonstrated by the detection of CO2 in N2 by utilizing hollow sapphire fibers capped with ZnSe windows.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Matsuura, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).
  2. M. Miyagi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 843, 26 (1987).
  3. T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. A. Worrell, V. Skarda, J. Phys. D 22, 535 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Jenkins, R. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1722 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Harrington, C. Gregory, Opt. Lett. 15, 541 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), p. 749.
  8. E. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), Vol. 2.
  9. F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).
  10. Y. Matsuura, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 423 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Matsuura, A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Appl. Opt. 29, 2213 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Matsuura, M. Kawamura, M. Miyagi, H. Ishikawa, Appl. Opt. 29, 2214 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Marcatili, R. Schmeltzer, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783 (1964).
  14. A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, K. Sakamoto, S. Karasawa, S. Nishida, Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 214 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. J. Wilson, R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 52 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Miyagi, K. Harrada, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakam, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 484, 117 (1984).
  17. S. J. Saggese, T. Iqbal, M. R. Shahriari, J. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

1990 (6)

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Matsuura, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

J. Harrington, C. Gregory, Opt. Lett. 15, 541 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).

Y. Matsuura, A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Appl. Opt. 29, 2213 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuura, M. Kawamura, M. Miyagi, H. Ishikawa, Appl. Opt. 29, 2214 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Saggese, T. Iqbal, M. R. Shahriari, J. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

1989 (2)

1987 (3)

M. Miyagi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 843, 26 (1987).

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, K. Sakamoto, S. Karasawa, S. Nishida, Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wilson, R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Jenkins, R. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1722 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. Miyagi, K. Harrada, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakam, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 484, 117 (1984).

1981 (1)

T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

E. Marcatili, R. Schmeltzer, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783 (1964).

Aizawa, Y.

M. Miyagi, K. Harrada, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakam, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 484, 117 (1984).

Barkay, N.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).

Devereux, R.

R. Jenkins, R. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1722 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Devereux, R. W. J.

S. J. Wilson, R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, C.

Harrada, K.

M. Miyagi, K. Harrada, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakam, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 484, 117 (1984).

Harrington, J.

S. J. Saggese, T. Iqbal, M. R. Shahriari, J. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

J. Harrington, C. Gregory, Opt. Lett. 15, 541 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hidaka, T.

T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hongo, A.

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Matsuura, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

Y. Matsuura, A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Appl. Opt. 29, 2213 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuura, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, K. Sakamoto, S. Karasawa, S. Nishida, Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, T.

S. J. Saggese, T. Iqbal, M. R. Shahriari, J. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

Ishikawa, H.

Jenkins, R.

R. Jenkins, R. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1722 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, R. M.

S. J. Wilson, R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Karasawa, S.

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, K. Sakamoto, S. Karasawa, S. Nishida, Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).

Kawakam, S.

M. Miyagi, K. Harrada, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakam, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 484, 117 (1984).

Kawamura, M.

Levite, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).

Marcatili, E.

E. Marcatili, R. Schmeltzer, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783 (1964).

Margalit, E.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).

Matsuura, Y.

Miyagi, M.

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Matsuura, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

Y. Matsuura, A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Appl. Opt. 29, 2213 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuura, M. Kawamura, M. Miyagi, H. Ishikawa, Appl. Opt. 29, 2214 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuura, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 843, 26 (1987).

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, K. Sakamoto, S. Karasawa, S. Nishida, Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi, K. Harrada, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakam, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 484, 117 (1984).

Morikawa, T.

T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Moser, F.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).

Nishida, S.

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, K. Sakamoto, S. Karasawa, S. Nishida, Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Paiss, I.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).

Sa’ar, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).

Saggese, S. J.

S. J. Saggese, T. Iqbal, M. R. Shahriari, J. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

Saito, M.

Sakamoto, K.

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, K. Sakamoto, S. Karasawa, S. Nishida, Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltzer, R.

E. Marcatili, R. Schmeltzer, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783 (1964).

Schnitzer, I.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).

Shahriari, M. R.

S. J. Saggese, T. Iqbal, M. R. Shahriari, J. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

Shimada, J.

T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, G. H.

S. J. Saggese, T. Iqbal, M. R. Shahriari, J. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

Skarda, V.

C. A. Worrell, V. Skarda, J. Phys. D 22, 535 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, S. J.

S. J. Wilson, R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Worrell, C. A.

C. A. Worrell, V. Skarda, J. Phys. D 22, 535 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zur, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. Marcatili, R. Schmeltzer, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783 (1964).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. J. Wilson, R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Jenkins, R. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1722 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

C. A. Worrell, V. Skarda, J. Phys. D 22, 535 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, K. Sakamoto, S. Karasawa, S. Nishida, Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (5)

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Matsuura, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

M. Miyagi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 843, 26 (1987).

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 128 (1990).

M. Miyagi, K. Harrada, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakam, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 484, 117 (1984).

S. J. Saggese, T. Iqbal, M. R. Shahriari, J. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 26 (1990).

Other (2)

E. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), p. 749.

E. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), Vol. 2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Attenuation of (curve A) sapphire tube with i.d. = 1.06 mm and (curve B) silica tube with i.d. = 1.12 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of launching f-number on the attenuation of a sapphire tube with i.d. = 1.06 mm. CO2 laser values (solid circles) and FTIR values (open circles) are given.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of theoretical attenuation determined by the MS theory (dotted curve) and experimental loss (solid curve) for a sapphire tube with an i.d. of 1.06 mm and an f/30 launch.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Additional loss due to bending of a 1-m sapphire tube with an i.d. of 1.06 mm for various bend radii R (f/8 launch).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Additional loss of a silica tube due to bending at 10.6 μm (open symbols) and at 8.4 μm (solid symbols) for three different inner-radius tubes: 0.34 mm (squares), 0.56 mm (circles), and 0.72 mm (triangles) (f/8 launch).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of gas spectroscopy using two sapphire tubes with ZnSe caps to measure 20% CO2 in N2. The experimental spectrum (curve A) was found by using a path length of 0.5 cm, and the reference spectrum (curve B) was determined by using a 10-cm gas cell without any wave-guides. (Note the scale change for curve A.)

Equations (1)

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α nm = ( U nm 2 π ) 2 λ 2 a 3 Re [ 1 / 2 ( ν 2 + 1 ) ( ν 2 - 1 ) ] ,

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