Abstract

We report the observation of spatial optical solitons due to the Kerr nonlinearity in a planar glass waveguide and present measurements of the nonlinear response obtained by placing a pinhole at the output of the waveguide. For input intensities greater than that required for the fundamental soliton, we observe breakup of the output owing to the effect of two-photon absorption.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964); V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 65, 193 (1988); S. Maneuf, F. Reynaud, Opt. Commun. 66, 325 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. H. Knox, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, Opt. Lett. 9, 552 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 9, 150 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Satsuma, N. Yajima, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 55, 284 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, Appl. Opt. 17, 3990 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Silberberg, J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, P. W. E. Smith, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB4.
  11. E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 152, 83 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, J. S. Aitchison, “Ion-exchanged optical waveguides for all-optical switching,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

1989 (1)

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 152, 83 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 65, 193 (1988); S. Maneuf, F. Reynaud, Opt. Commun. 66, 325 (1988).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

1980 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095 (1980).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

1976 (1)

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497 (1976).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

J. Satsuma, N. Yajima, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 55, 284 (1974).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964); V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62 (1972).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 152, 83 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, J. S. Aitchison, “Ion-exchanged optical waveguides for all-optical switching,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Y. Silberberg, J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, P. W. E. Smith, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB4.

Barthelemy, A.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 65, 193 (1988); S. Maneuf, F. Reynaud, Opt. Commun. 66, 325 (1988).
[Crossref]

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964); V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62 (1972).
[Crossref]

Downer, M. C.

Feit, M. D.

Fleck, J. A.

Fork, R. L.

Friberg, S. R.

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
[Crossref]

Froehly, C.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 65, 193 (1988); S. Maneuf, F. Reynaud, Opt. Commun. 66, 325 (1988).
[Crossref]

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964); V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62 (1972).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 9, 150 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095 (1980).
[Crossref]

Jackel, J. L.

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 152, 83 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, J. S. Aitchison, “Ion-exchanged optical waveguides for all-optical switching,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Y. Silberberg, J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, P. W. E. Smith, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB4.

Knox, W. H.

Krol, D. M.

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 152, 83 (1989).
[Crossref]

Leaird, D. E.

Y. Silberberg, J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, P. W. E. Smith, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB4.

Maneuf, S.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 65, 193 (1988); S. Maneuf, F. Reynaud, Opt. Commun. 66, 325 (1988).
[Crossref]

Martinez, O. E.

Milam, D.

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497 (1976).
[Crossref]

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095 (1980).
[Crossref]

Oliver, M. K.

Y. Silberberg, J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, P. W. E. Smith, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB4.

Satsuma, J.

J. Satsuma, N. Yajima, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 55, 284 (1974).
[Crossref]

Shank, C. V.

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Silberberg, J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, P. W. E. Smith, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB4.

Smith, P. W.

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. W. E.

Y. Silberberg, J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, P. W. E. Smith, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB4.

Stolen, R. H.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095 (1980).
[Crossref]

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964); V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62 (1972).
[Crossref]

Vogel, E. M.

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 152, 83 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, J. S. Aitchison, “Ion-exchanged optical waveguides for all-optical switching,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Weber, M. J.

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497 (1976).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

Y. Silberberg, J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, P. W. E. Smith, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB4.

Yajima, N.

J. Satsuma, N. Yajima, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 55, 284 (1974).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497 (1976).
[Crossref]

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 152, 83 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985); S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 65, 193 (1988); S. Maneuf, F. Reynaud, Opt. Commun. 66, 325 (1988).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964); V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62 (1972).
[Crossref]

Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. (1)

J. Satsuma, N. Yajima, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 55, 284 (1974).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Y. Silberberg, J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, P. W. E. Smith, in Digest of Meeting on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper WB4.

J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, J. S. Aitchison, “Ion-exchanged optical waveguides for all-optical switching,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the apparatus used for the experiments. BS’s, beam splitters; M’s, mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured time-averaged beam profiles as a function of input power. (a) Input beam profile; (b) output beam profile, peak power 24 kW; (c) output beam profile, peak power 400 kW; (d) output beam profile, peak power 1.25 MW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental measurements of the output power through an aperture of effective diameter 15 μm centered on (a) the output beam and (b) the wing of the output beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pump–probe measurements used to check on the mechanism of the nonlinearity. The top trace shows the transmission of the pump beam through an aperture, and the bottom trace shows the transmission of a delayed probe.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 ik E z = 2 E x 2 2 k 2 n 2 n 0 | E | 2 E ,
E ( x , z ) = 1 k a 0 n 0 n 2 exp ( iz 2 k a 0 2 ) sech ( x x 0 a 0 ) ,
P s = | E | 2 d x = n 0 n 2 2 a 0 k 2 .
P t = n 0 2 w n 2 a 0 k 2 .

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