Abstract

We investigate the diffraction efficiency of strong volume holograms in which the coupling parameter is several times that needed for maximum diffraction efficiency. We discuss the implications of our findings on photorefractive implementations of various neural network systems.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
  2. P. J. Van Heerden, Appl. Opt. 2, 393 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Lee, X. Gu, D. Psaltis, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2191 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
  5. D. Psaltis, K. Wagner, D. Brady, Appl. Opt. 27, 1752 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. J. Burke, D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, G. A. Alphonse, Opt. Eng. 17, 308 (1978).
  7. F. Mok, M. Tackitt, H. M. Stoll, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 76.

1989

H. Lee, X. Gu, D. Psaltis, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2191 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1986

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

1978

W. J. Burke, D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, G. A. Alphonse, Opt. Eng. 17, 308 (1978).

1969

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

1963

Alphonse, G. A.

W. J. Burke, D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, G. A. Alphonse, Opt. Eng. 17, 308 (1978).

Brady, D.

Burke, W. J.

W. J. Burke, D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, G. A. Alphonse, Opt. Eng. 17, 308 (1978).

Fainman, Y.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

Gu, X.

H. Lee, X. Gu, D. Psaltis, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2191 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Klancnik, E.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Lee, H.

H. Lee, X. Gu, D. Psaltis, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2191 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

Mok, F.

F. Mok, M. Tackitt, H. M. Stoll, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 76.

Phillips, W.

W. J. Burke, D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, G. A. Alphonse, Opt. Eng. 17, 308 (1978).

Psaltis, D.

H. Lee, X. Gu, D. Psaltis, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2191 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, K. Wagner, D. Brady, Appl. Opt. 27, 1752 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

W. J. Burke, D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, G. A. Alphonse, Opt. Eng. 17, 308 (1978).

Stoll, H. M.

F. Mok, M. Tackitt, H. M. Stoll, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 76.

Tackitt, M.

F. Mok, M. Tackitt, H. M. Stoll, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 76.

Van Heerden, P. J.

Wagner, K.

Appl. Opt.

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Lee, X. Gu, D. Psaltis, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2191 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

W. J. Burke, D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, G. A. Alphonse, Opt. Eng. 17, 308 (1978).

Other

F. Mok, M. Tackitt, H. M. Stoll, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 76.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical predictions of the temporal behavior of the strength parameter and diffraction efficiency during hologram development and erasure. Plots are given for two steady-state value of ϕ: ϕmax = π/2 (dotted curve) and ϕmax = 3π/2 (solid curve). The time is shown in units of the photorefractive time constant, (a) Growth and decay of the strength parameter ϕ. (b) Normalized diffraction efficiency during growth and decay of the grating [corresponding to depth parameter plots of (a)].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Apparatus for writing and probing deep holograms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiencies recorded during writing and erasure of gratings. The peak diffraction efficiency in each case is approximately 25 ± 3% (diffraction efficiency is defined as the ratio of the input readout power to the diffracted power); the horizontal scale is 793.5 msec/division, (a) P1 = 24 mW, P2 = 2.1 mW; (b) P1 = 27.8 mW, P2 = 10.8 mW; (c) P1 = 20.7 mW, P2 = 20.8 mW.

Equations (4)

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η = exp ( α d / cos θ ) sin 2 ( π Δ n d / λ cos θ ) ,
Δ n ( r ) m = 1 M f m ( r ) ,
R = ϕ max ϕ min = 5 π / 2 ( η min ) 1 / 2 10 3 .
ϕ max M = ϕ min ,

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