Abstract

We report programmable shaping of femtosecond optical pulses by use of a multielement liquid-crystal modulator to manipulate the phases of spatially dispersed optical frequency components. Our approach provides for continuously variable control of the optical phase and permits the pulse shape to be reconfigured on a millisecond time scale. We use the apparatus to demonstrate femtosecond pulse-position modulation as well as programmable compression of chirped femtosecond pulses.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. L. Fork, C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker, C. V. Shank, Opt. Lett. 12, 483 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Froehly, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 10, pp. 115–121.
  3. J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, R. N. Thurston, Opt. Lett. 10, 609 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, J. A. Salehi, Opt. Lett. 13, 300 (1988); A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, E. M. Kirschner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1563 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Haner, W. S. Warren, Opt. Lett. 12, 398 (1987); Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1458 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Kobayashi, A. Morimoto, in OSA Proceedings on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Sollner, D. M. Bloom, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 81.
  7. A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. S. Warren, Science 242, 878 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. E. Leaird, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular motion,” Science (to be published).
  11. J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 10, 131 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. G. de Gennes, Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1974).
  13. O. E. Martinez, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 59 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. E. Leaird, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Warren, Science 242, 878 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, J. A. Salehi, Opt. Lett. 13, 300 (1988); A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, E. M. Kirschner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1563 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

1985 (2)

Andrejco, M. J.

A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. E. Leaird, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

Brito Cruz, C. H.

Colombeau, B.

C. Froehly, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 10, pp. 115–121.

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes, Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1974).

Fork, R. L.

Fouckhardt, H.

A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. E. Leaird, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Froehly, C.

C. Froehly, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 10, pp. 115–121.

Gordon, J. P.

Haner, M.

Hawkins, R. J.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heritage, J. P.

Kirschner, E. M.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, A. Morimoto, in OSA Proceedings on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Sollner, D. M. Bloom, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 81.

Leaird, D. E.

A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. E. Leaird, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular motion,” Science (to be published).

Martinez, O. E.

O. E. Martinez, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 59 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, A.

T. Kobayashi, A. Morimoto, in OSA Proceedings on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Sollner, D. M. Bloom, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 81.

Nelson, K. A.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular motion,” Science (to be published).

Saifi, M. A.

A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. E. Leaird, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Salehi, J. A.

Shank, C. V.

Silberberg, Y.

A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. E. Leaird, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. E. Leaird, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thurston, R. N.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, R. N. Thurston, Opt. Lett. 10, 609 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, W. J.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdmanis, J. A.

Vampouille, M.

C. Froehly, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 10, pp. 115–121.

Warren, W. S.

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. E. Leaird, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, J. A. Salehi, Opt. Lett. 13, 300 (1988); A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, E. M. Kirschner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1563 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, R. N. Thurston, Opt. Lett. 10, 609 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular motion,” Science (to be published).

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular motion,” Science (to be published).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

O. E. Martinez, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 59 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. E. Leaird, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

W. S. Warren, Science 242, 878 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

C. Froehly, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 10, pp. 115–121.

T. Kobayashi, A. Morimoto, in OSA Proceedings on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Sollner, D. M. Bloom, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 81.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular motion,” Science (to be published).

P. G. de Gennes, Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1974).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Programmable femtosecond pulse-shaping apparatus. The lenses have a 15-cm focal length and are spaced by 30 cm. The 1800-line/mm gratings are placed at the focal planes of the lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real-time pulse-shaping operation. Top trace: cross-correlation trace of the shaped pulses. Bottom trace: modulated drive signal (D2) switching between V1 = 1.9 V and V2 = 5.0 V at a 20-Hz rate. The other drive signal (D1, not shown) is kept at a constant 1.9-V level. The switches are set so that when D2 is at 5.0 V, the phases are given by {0000ππππ0000ππππ0000ππππ0000ππππ}, resulting in a pulse doublet. When both drives are at 1.9 V, all the phases are the same, and a single pulse results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Intensity profiles of temporally shifted pulses measured by cross correlation with 75-fsec pulses directly from the colliding-pulse mode-locked laser. The changes in phase (δϕ) from one modulator element to the next are curve 1, −0.25π; curve 2, −0.14π; curve 3, 0; curve 4, 0.14π; curve 5, 0.25π. (b) Comparison of the cross-correlation measurement obtained by using a stepper-motor-driven translation stage to increment the delay (the solid curve) and a cross-correlation measurement obtained with no moving parts by means of the multielement phase modulator (the squares).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cross-correlation traces of pulses obtained with the gratings at their normal positions (the solid curve) and with one of the gratings moved 2.3 cm closer to the lens pair (the dotted curve), (b) Cross-correlation trace of a compressed pulse that results when the appropriate quadratic phase shift is applied by the multielement modulator.

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