Abstract

The radiation efficiency and physical mechanism for the generation of subpicosecond electromagnetic pulses from large-aperture photoconducting antennas are evaluated. The rise time of the photocurrent is found to be more important than the fall time in determining the relative sensitivity of photoconducting materials. Indium phosphide is found to be almost 10 times more sensitive than radiation-damaged silicon-on-sapphire.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  3. Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
  6. F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, C. C. Chu, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics II, F. J. Leonberger, C. H. Lee, F. Capasso, H. Morkoe, eds., Vol. 24 of Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), p. 228.
    [Crossref]
  7. P. S. Pershan, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 10, 131 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Krokel, D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2355 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Shah, B. Deveaud, T. C. Damen, W.-T. Tsang, A. C. Gossard, P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 222 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
    [Crossref]

1989 (2)

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. Krokel, D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
[Crossref]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (3)

A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2355 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Shah, B. Deveaud, T. C. Damen, W.-T. Tsang, A. C. Gossard, P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 222 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

P. S. Pershan, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[Crossref]

Auston, D. H.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2355 (1987).
[Crossref]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[Crossref]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Bloembergen, N.

P. S. Pershan, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2355 (1987).
[Crossref]

Cheung, K. P.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chu, C. C.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, C. C. Chu, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics II, F. J. Leonberger, C. H. Lee, F. Capasso, H. Morkoe, eds., Vol. 24 of Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), p. 228.
[Crossref]

Damen, T. C.

J. Shah, B. Deveaud, T. C. Damen, W.-T. Tsang, A. C. Gossard, P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 222 (1987).
[Crossref]

Darrow, J. T.

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

DeFonzo, A. P.

A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212 (1987).
[Crossref]

Deveaud, B.

J. Shah, B. Deveaud, T. C. Damen, W.-T. Tsang, A. C. Gossard, P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 222 (1987).
[Crossref]

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, C. C. Chu, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics II, F. J. Leonberger, C. H. Lee, F. Capasso, H. Morkoe, eds., Vol. 24 of Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), p. 228.
[Crossref]

Fattinger, Ch.

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fork, R. L.

Gordon, J. P.

Gossard, A. C.

J. Shah, B. Deveaud, T. C. Damen, W.-T. Tsang, A. C. Gossard, P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 222 (1987).
[Crossref]

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Krokel, D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[Crossref]

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, C. C. Chu, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics II, F. J. Leonberger, C. H. Lee, F. Capasso, H. Morkoe, eds., Vol. 24 of Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), p. 228.
[Crossref]

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Ketchen, M. B.

D. Krokel, D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
[Crossref]

Krokel, D.

D. Krokel, D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lugli, P.

J. Shah, B. Deveaud, T. C. Damen, W.-T. Tsang, A. C. Gossard, P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 222 (1987).
[Crossref]

Lutz, C. R.

A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212 (1987).
[Crossref]

Nuss, M. C.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2355 (1987).
[Crossref]

Pershan, P. S.

P. S. Pershan, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[Crossref]

Redondo, A.

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
[Crossref]

Shah, J.

J. Shah, B. Deveaud, T. C. Damen, W.-T. Tsang, A. C. Gossard, P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 222 (1987).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. L.

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. R.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[Crossref]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[Crossref]

Tsang, W.-T.

J. Shah, B. Deveaud, T. C. Damen, W.-T. Tsang, A. C. Gossard, P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 222 (1987).
[Crossref]

Valdmanis, J. A.

Wysin, G. M.

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212 (1987).
[Crossref]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[Crossref]

D. Krokel, D. Grischkowsky, M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. S. Pershan, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2355 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Shah, B. Deveaud, T. C. Damen, W.-T. Tsang, A. C. Gossard, P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 222 (1987).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, C. C. Chu, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics II, F. J. Leonberger, C. H. Lee, F. Capasso, H. Morkoe, eds., Vol. 24 of Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), p. 228.
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a large-aperture planar photoconductor. The optical illumination, which consists of an ultrashort optical pulse, is absorbed in the photoconductor at an angle θop. The surface currents in the photoconductor radiate electromagnetic pulses in the direction of the specular direction θ1 and into the substrate at the refracted angle θ2, which satisfies the generalized Fresnel’s laws described in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal waveform of the radiated pulse measured with a 100-μm dipole antenna at a distance of 7 mm from an InP large-aperture photoconducting antenna.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured angular distribution of the amplitude of the electric field of the electromagnetic pulse radiated from a 1-cm InP photoconducting antenna. The peak field is in the specular direction of the reflected optical beam and has a beam width of approximately 6°.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of Photoconducting Materials

Equations (1)

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n 2 ( ω el ) sin θ 2 = n 1 ( ω el ) sin θ 1 = n 1 ( ω op ) sin θ op ,

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