Abstract

Buried planar optical waveguides made by a purely thermal backdiffusion K+−Na+ ion-exchange process have been demonstrated, for the fïrst time to our knowledge, on soda-lime glass substrates. The potassium-ion concentration profile is determined using a scanning electron microscope technique, which is then correlated to the numerical simulation of the ion-exchange fabrication process.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. L. Yip, J. Albert, Opt. Lett. 10, 151 (1985).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. T. G. Giallorenzi, E. J. West, R. Kirk, R. Ginther, R. A. Andrews, Appl. Opt. 12, 1240 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  10. B. L. Gabriel, SEM: A User's Manual For Materials Science (American Society For Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1985), pp. 19–21.
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Gortych, D. G. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 892 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. McCourt, R. Rimet, C. Nissim, in Proceedings of the European Fiber-Optic Conference (EFOC/LAN, Basel, Switzerland, 1987), p. 111.
  14. E. B. Shand, Glass Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958), pp. 9–11.
  15. J. Albert, G. L. Yip, Appl. Opt. 24, 3692 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. Seki, H. Hashizume, R. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 24, 1258 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, Appl. Opt. 27, 4837 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. V. Ramaswamy, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, Appl. Opt. 27, 1814 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

R. K. Lagu, R. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 19 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Gortych, D. G. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 892 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1977

G. Stewart, C. A. Miller, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. De LaRue, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973

Albert, J.

Andrews, R. A.

Cheng, H. C.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ramaswamy, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, Appl. Opt. 27, 1814 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De LaRue, R. M.

G. Stewart, C. A. Miller, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. De LaRue, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Echlin, P.

J. Goldstein, D. Newbury, P. Echlin, D. Joy, C. Fiori, E. Lifschin, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 75–77.

Fiori, C.

J. Goldstein, D. Newbury, P. Echlin, D. Joy, C. Fiori, E. Lifschin, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 75–77.

Gabriel, B. L.

B. L. Gabriel, SEM: A User's Manual For Materials Science (American Society For Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1985), pp. 19–21.

Giallorenzi, T. G.

Ginther, R.

Goldstein, J.

J. Goldstein, D. Newbury, P. Echlin, D. Joy, C. Fiori, E. Lifschin, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 75–77.

Gortych, J. E.

J. E. Gortych, D. G. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 892 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

J. E. Gortych, D. G. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 892 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hashizume, H.

M. Seki, H. Hashizume, R. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 24, 1258 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Joy, D.

J. Goldstein, D. Newbury, P. Echlin, D. Joy, C. Fiori, E. Lifschin, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 75–77.

Kirk, R.

Lagu, R. K.

R. K. Lagu, R. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 19 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

G. Stewart, C. A. Miller, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. De LaRue, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lifschin, E.

J. Goldstein, D. Newbury, P. Echlin, D. Joy, C. Fiori, E. Lifschin, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 75–77.

McCourt, M.

M. McCourt, R. Rimet, C. Nissim, in Proceedings of the European Fiber-Optic Conference (EFOC/LAN, Basel, Switzerland, 1987), p. 111.

Miliou, A.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. A.

G. Stewart, C. A. Miller, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. De LaRue, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, D.

J. Goldstein, D. Newbury, P. Echlin, D. Joy, C. Fiori, E. Lifschin, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 75–77.

Nissim, C.

M. McCourt, R. Rimet, C. Nissim, in Proceedings of the European Fiber-Optic Conference (EFOC/LAN, Basel, Switzerland, 1987), p. 111.

Ramaswamy, R. V.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ramaswamy, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, Appl. Opt. 27, 1814 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Lagu, R. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 19 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rimet, R.

M. McCourt, R. Rimet, C. Nissim, in Proceedings of the European Fiber-Optic Conference (EFOC/LAN, Basel, Switzerland, 1987), p. 111.

Seki, M.

M. Seki, H. Hashizume, R. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 24, 1258 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shand, E. B.

E. B. Shand, Glass Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958), pp. 9–11.

Srivastava, R.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ramaswamy, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, Appl. Opt. 27, 1814 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, C. A. Miller, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. De LaRue, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, R.

M. Seki, H. Hashizume, R. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 24, 1258 (1988).
[CrossRef]

West, E. J.

Wilkinson, C. D. W.

G. Stewart, C. A. Miller, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. De LaRue, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yip, G. L.

Zhenguang, H.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. K. Lagu, R. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 19 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Seki, H. Hashizume, R. Sugawara, Electron. Lett. 24, 1258 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Stewart, C. A. Miller, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. De LaRue, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Gortych, D. G. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 892 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. Goldstein, D. Newbury, P. Echlin, D. Joy, C. Fiori, E. Lifschin, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 75–77.

B. L. Gabriel, SEM: A User's Manual For Materials Science (American Society For Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1985), pp. 19–21.

M. McCourt, R. Rimet, C. Nissim, in Proceedings of the European Fiber-Optic Conference (EFOC/LAN, Basel, Switzerland, 1987), p. 111.

E. B. Shand, Glass Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958), pp. 9–11.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram showing SEM method used to determine potassium concentration profile in ion-exchanged waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM photograph of a surface waveguide (10,000×); t1 = 2.0 h, T1 = 360°C. (b) SEM photograph of a buried waveguide (5000×); t1 = 2.0 h, T1 = 360° C, t2 = 0.5 h, T2 = 440° C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical solution for a buried waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the numerical solution (solid curve) with the scaled SEM data (squares) of the buried waveguide in Fig. 2(b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Quantitative Electron Microprobe Analysis of a Surface Waveguide and a Buried Waveguide

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