Abstract

We describe a laser-diode microscope that produces images that are almost free of speckles. Speckle reduction is achieved by large-signal current modulation of the laser diode and the introduction of a dispersing section as part of the illumination arrangement.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. S. Mckechnie, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 123.
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. Goodman, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 9.
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. George, A. Jain, Opt. Commun. 61, 848 (1971).
  4. S. Lowenthal, D. Joyeux, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 847 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. S. Ih, L. A. Baxter, Appl. Opt. 17, 1447 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Kiemle, U. Wolff, Opt. Commun. 3, 26 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Imai, M. Imai, Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Opt. 19, 3541 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. S. Considine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1001 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Kermisch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 887 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Chavel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 935 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 721 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), p. 183.
  13. G. W. Stroke, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1963), Vol. II, p. 3.
  14. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1970).

1980 (2)

1978 (2)

1975 (1)

1971 (3)

S. Lowenthal, D. Joyeux, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 847 (1971).
[CrossRef]

N. George, A. Jain, Opt. Commun. 61, 848 (1971).

H. Kiemle, U. Wolff, Opt. Commun. 3, 26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

P. S. Considine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1001 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, L. A.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1970).

Chavel, P.

Considine, P. S.

P. S. Considine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1001 (1966).
[CrossRef]

George, N.

N. George, A. Jain, Opt. Commun. 61, 848 (1971).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), p. 183.

J. W. Goodman, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 9.
[CrossRef]

Ih, C. S.

Imai, M.

Imai, Y.

Jain, A.

N. George, A. Jain, Opt. Commun. 61, 848 (1971).

Joyeux, D.

Kermisch, D.

Kiemle, H.

H. Kiemle, U. Wolff, Opt. Commun. 3, 26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lowenthal, S.

Mckechnie, T. S.

T. S. Mckechnie, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 123.
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

Stroke, G. W.

G. W. Stroke, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1963), Vol. II, p. 3.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1970).

Wolff, U.

H. Kiemle, U. Wolff, Opt. Commun. 3, 26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. Kiemle, U. Wolff, Opt. Commun. 3, 26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

N. George, A. Jain, Opt. Commun. 61, 848 (1971).

Other (5)

T. S. Mckechnie, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 123.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 9.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), p. 183.

G. W. Stroke, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1963), Vol. II, p. 3.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1970).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the laser-diode microscope. M1, M2, mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-accumulated spectral profiles of channeled-substrate planar AlGaAs laser at (a) only the bias level and (b) 40-mA peak-to-peak modulation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of the sample for an objective N.A. = 0.30 (10×) under (a) no modulation and (b) a 120-Hz triangular wave superimposed onto the bias level (scale, 50 μm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of the sample for an objective N.A. = 0.40 (20×) under (a) no modulation and (b) a 120-Hz triangular wave superimposed onto the bias level (scale, 50 μm).

Equations (1)

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2 a = ( f M tan θ / λ 0 ) j = 1 N 1 Δ λ j + 1 , j ,

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