Abstract

We report the measurements of picometer vibration amplitudes produced by a piezo mirror in an interferometric setup, using a GaAs:Cr photoconductive device. The moving light fringes (gratings) induce in this new detector periodic photocurrents characterized by efficient suppression of the low-frequency drifts of the working point and low sensitivity to the amplitude laser noise. The optimum operation conditions of this system are also shown.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. B. Klein, Opt. Lett. 9, 350 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Albanese, J. Kumar, W. H. Steier, Opt. Lett. 11, 650 (1986);Opt. Commun. 63, 191 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Imbert, H. Rajbenbach, S. Mallick, J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 13, 327 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, M. P. Petrov, M. V. Krasinkova, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 265 (1987).
  6. M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 379 (1986).
  7. G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 1559 (1986).
  8. I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 261 (1988).
  9. V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, I. Apostol, M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, preprint LOP-72-89 (CIP Press, Bucharest, 1989).
  10. G. E. Moss, L. R. Miller, R. L. Forward, Appl. Opt. 10, 2495 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Ohtsuka, Opt. Commun. 7, 244 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. L. Forward, Phys. Rev. D 17, 379 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Bassan, S. Ciliberto, Opt. Acta 27, 1253 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, J. Phys. (Paris) Suppl. C8 42, 451 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Tanaka, K. Nakayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L233 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. P. Birch, M. Okaji, J. Phys. E 19, 361 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1988

B. Imbert, H. Rajbenbach, S. Mallick, J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 13, 327 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 261 (1988).

1987

G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, M. P. Petrov, M. V. Krasinkova, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 265 (1987).

1986

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 379 (1986).

G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 1559 (1986).

G. Albanese, J. Kumar, W. H. Steier, Opt. Lett. 11, 650 (1986);Opt. Commun. 63, 191 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Birch, M. Okaji, J. Phys. E 19, 361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein, Opt. Lett. 9, 350 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

M. Tanaka, K. Nakayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L233 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, J. Phys. (Paris) Suppl. C8 42, 451 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

M. Bassan, S. Ciliberto, Opt. Acta 27, 1253 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. L. Forward, Phys. Rev. D 17, 379 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973

Y. Ohtsuka, Opt. Commun. 7, 244 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971

Albanese, G.

Apostol, I.

V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, I. Apostol, M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, preprint LOP-72-89 (CIP Press, Bucharest, 1989).

Ballman, A. A.

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bassan, M.

M. Bassan, S. Ciliberto, Opt. Acta 27, 1253 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Billing, H.

A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, J. Phys. (Paris) Suppl. C8 42, 451 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Birch, K. P.

K. P. Birch, M. Okaji, J. Phys. E 19, 361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ciliberto, S.

M. Bassan, S. Ciliberto, Opt. Acta 27, 1253 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Forward, R. L.

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Herriau, J. P.

Huignard, J. P.

Imbert, B.

Johnson, A. M.

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

Krasinkova, M. V.

G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, M. P. Petrov, M. V. Krasinkova, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 265 (1987).

Kumar, J.

Maischberger, K.

A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, J. Phys. (Paris) Suppl. C8 42, 451 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mallick, S.

Miller, L. R.

Moss, G. E.

Nakayama, K.

M. Tanaka, K. Nakayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L233 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Opt. Commun. 7, 244 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Okaji, M.

K. P. Birch, M. Okaji, J. Phys. E 19, 361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. H.

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, M. P.

G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, M. P. Petrov, M. V. Krasinkova, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 265 (1987).

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 379 (1986).

V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, I. Apostol, M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, preprint LOP-72-89 (CIP Press, Bucharest, 1989).

Popa, D.

V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, I. Apostol, M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, preprint LOP-72-89 (CIP Press, Bucharest, 1989).

Rajbenbach, H.

Rudiger, A.

A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, J. Phys. (Paris) Suppl. C8 42, 451 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, J. Phys. (Paris) Suppl. C8 42, 451 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schnupp, L.

A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, J. Phys. (Paris) Suppl. C8 42, 451 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, W.

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, I. A.

I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 261 (1988).

Steier, W. H.

Stepanov, S. I.

I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 261 (1988).

G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, M. P. Petrov, M. V. Krasinkova, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 265 (1987).

G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 1559 (1986).

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 379 (1986).

V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, I. Apostol, M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, preprint LOP-72-89 (CIP Press, Bucharest, 1989).

Tanaka, M.

M. Tanaka, K. Nakayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L233 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Trofimov, G. S.

I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 261 (1988).

G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, M. P. Petrov, M. V. Krasinkova, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 265 (1987).

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 379 (1986).

G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 1559 (1986).

V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, I. Apostol, M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, preprint LOP-72-89 (CIP Press, Bucharest, 1989).

Vlad, V. I.

V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, I. Apostol, M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, preprint LOP-72-89 (CIP Press, Bucharest, 1989).

Winkler, W.

A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, J. Phys. (Paris) Suppl. C8 42, 451 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris)

A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, J. Phys. (Paris) Suppl. C8 42, 451 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E

K. P. Birch, M. Okaji, J. Phys. E 19, 361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Tanaka, K. Nakayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L233 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

M. Bassan, S. Ciliberto, Opt. Acta 27, 1253 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. Ohtsuka, Opt. Commun. 7, 244 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. D

R. L. Forward, Phys. Rev. D 17, 379 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Solid State

G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 1559 (1986).

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys.

I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 261 (1988).

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett.

G. S. Trofimov, S. I. Stepanov, M. P. Petrov, M. V. Krasinkova, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 265 (1987).

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 379 (1986).

Other

V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, I. Apostol, M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, G. S. Trofimov, preprint LOP-72-89 (CIP Press, Bucharest, 1989).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Interferometric geometry of a GaAs:Cr photodetector: M1, M2, mirrors; BS, beam splitter; PZT, piezoceramic transducer; RL, load resistor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized signal amplitude (first harmonic) as a function of the vibration frequency f for different fringe spacings Λ. USOM, maximum value of the signal USO, obtained for optimal working conditions. The solid curves show the theoretical calculations (λ = 633 nm, Ug = 70 V, U0 = 0 V, τM = 80 μsec, LD = 10.6 μm, μτ = 4.6 × 10−5 mm2/V, T = 300 K).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the amplification ratio US/USO on the external voltage U0. US is the signal in the presence of the external field, and USO is the signal in the absence of the field. The solid curves show theoretical calculations (λ = 633 nm, f = 1 kHz, Ug = 10 V, LD = 10.6 μm, μτ = 4.6 × 10−5 cm2/V, T = 300 K).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Dependence of the absolute amplification ratio US/USOM on fringe frequency Λ−1. (b) Normalized response of the device for U0 = 0 V on the fringe frequency Λ−1 (λ = 633 nm, f = 1 kHz, Ug = 10 V, LD = 10.6 m, μτ = 4.6 × 10−5 cm2/V).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental dependence of the signal amplitude USO (first harmonic) on the piezo mirror excitation voltage Ug (λ = 633 nm, f = 1 kHz, U0 = 0 V, Λ−1 = 15 mm−1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental measurements of small vibration amplitudes, A. The data were calibrated by the self-calibration procedure.

Equations (5)

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U SO I 0 A m 2 f / f 0 ( 1 + f 2 / f 0 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
f 0 = [ 2 π τ M ( 1 + 4 π 2 L D 2 / Λ 2 ) ] 1 = [ 2 π τ M ( 1 + Λ 0 M 2 / Λ 2 ) ] 1 ,
U S U SO = 2 π μ τ [ 1 + ( Λ 0 Λ ) 2 ] { [ 1 + ( Λ 0 / Λ ) 2 ] ( Λ 0 2 / 2 π τ Λ ) ( 2 π / Λ ) μ τ E 0 2 } ( Λ 0 2 / Λ ) { [ 1 + ( Λ 0 / Λ 2 ) ] 2 + ( 4 π 2 / Λ 2 ) μ 2 τ 2 E 0 2 }
Λ M = 2 π μ τ E 0 .
U SO = k 1 J 0 ( 2 π A / λ ) J 1 ( 2 π A / λ ) ,

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