Abstract

The photorefractive effect in undoped semi-insulating GaP was observed. GaP has a photorefractive sensitivity in the spectral region of 0.6 to 0.9 μm. The photorefractive center is the deep donor resulting from the P antisite defect. We measured the two-beam coupling gain coefficient and its time constant as functions of the grating period and the pumping intensity, using a 633-nm He–Ne laser. The maximum gain coefficient of 0.33 cm−1 was obtained at a grating period of 1.1 μm. The time constant, which depends on the grating period, was 3–20 msec at a pumping intensity of 30 mW/cm2.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. H. Beckwith, W. R. Christian, Opt. Lett. 14, 642 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. B. Klein, Opt. Lett. 9, 350 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. B. Bylsma, P. M. Bridenbaugh, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 889 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. M. Glass, J. Strait, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I. Fundamental Phenomena, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 238.
  7. In Ref. 1 the authors reported that no effect had been observed in GaP.
  8. K. Chino, T. Kazuno, K. Satoh, M. Kubota, in Semiinsulating III–V Materials, G. Grossman, L. Ledebo, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1988), p. 133.
  9. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985);J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2798 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. P. Strohkendl, J. M. C. Jonathan, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 11, 312 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, Electron. Lett. 21, 220 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Partovi, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper WBB5.
  14. D. D. Nolte, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 891 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. Strait, A. M. Glass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 342 (1986).
    [Crossref]

1989 (2)

P. H. Beckwith, W. R. Christian, Opt. Lett. 14, 642 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Nolte, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 891 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. B. Bylsma, P. M. Bridenbaugh, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

1985 (2)

A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, Electron. Lett. 21, 220 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985);J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2798 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

M. B. Klein, Opt. Lett. 9, 350 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[Crossref]

Ballman, A. A.

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[Crossref]

Beckwith, P. H.

Boyd, G. D.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

R. B. Bylsma, P. M. Bridenbaugh, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bylsma, R. B.

R. B. Bylsma, P. M. Bridenbaugh, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

Chino, K.

K. Chino, T. Kazuno, K. Satoh, M. Kubota, in Semiinsulating III–V Materials, G. Grossman, L. Ledebo, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1988), p. 133.

Christian, W. R.

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[Crossref]

Garmire, E. M.

A. Partovi, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper WBB5.

Glass, A. M.

D. D. Nolte, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 891 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. B. Bylsma, P. M. Bridenbaugh, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Strait, A. M. Glass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 342 (1986).
[Crossref]

A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, Electron. Lett. 21, 220 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[Crossref]

A. M. Glass, J. Strait, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I. Fundamental Phenomena, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 238.

Hellwarth, R. W.

Johnson, A. M.

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[Crossref]

Jonathan, J. M. C.

Kazuno, T.

K. Chino, T. Kazuno, K. Satoh, M. Kubota, in Semiinsulating III–V Materials, G. Grossman, L. Ledebo, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1988), p. 133.

Klein, M. B.

A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, Electron. Lett. 21, 220 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985);J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2798 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. B. Klein, Opt. Lett. 9, 350 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Partovi, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper WBB5.

Kubota, M.

K. Chino, T. Kazuno, K. Satoh, M. Kubota, in Semiinsulating III–V Materials, G. Grossman, L. Ledebo, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1988), p. 133.

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

Levinstein, J. J.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[Crossref]

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

Nassau, K.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[Crossref]

Nolte, D. D.

D. D. Nolte, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 891 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

Olson, D. H.

D. D. Nolte, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 891 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. B. Bylsma, P. M. Bridenbaugh, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[Crossref]

Partovi, A.

A. Partovi, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper WBB5.

Satoh, K.

K. Chino, T. Kazuno, K. Satoh, M. Kubota, in Semiinsulating III–V Materials, G. Grossman, L. Ledebo, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1988), p. 133.

Simpson, W.

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. G.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[Crossref]

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

Strait, J.

J. Strait, A. M. Glass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 342 (1986).
[Crossref]

A. M. Glass, J. Strait, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I. Fundamental Phenomena, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 238.

Strohkendl, F. P.

Valley, G. C.

A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, Electron. Lett. 21, 220 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985);J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2798 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. Partovi, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper WBB5.

Vinetskii, V. L.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. M. Glass, A. M. Johnson, D. H. Olson, W. Simpson, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 948 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. B. Bylsma, P. M. Bridenbaugh, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 889 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, Electron. Lett. 21, 220 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ferroelectrics (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. B. Klein, G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985);J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2798 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. D. Nolte, D. H. Olson, A. M. Glass, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 891 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. Partovi, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper WBB5.

A. M. Glass, J. Strait, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I. Fundamental Phenomena, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 238.

In Ref. 1 the authors reported that no effect had been observed in GaP.

K. Chino, T. Kazuno, K. Satoh, M. Kubota, in Semiinsulating III–V Materials, G. Grossman, L. Ledebo, eds. (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1988), p. 133.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum α of the undoped semi-insulating GaP sample at 300 K.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement of the gain coefficient of two-beam coupling. He–Ne-1, He–Ne laser for the signal and the pump beams; He–Ne-2, He–Ne laser for the erasing beam; EX, beam expander; CH, chopper; P, pinhole (2-mm diameter); NDF, neutral-density filter; D, photodetector; LA, lock-in amplifier. The signal and pump laser beams are linearly polarized in the 〈110〉 direction of crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gain coefficient Γ as a function of grating period Λ at the wavelength λ = 633 nm. Experimental (squares) and theoretical (solid curve) results are plotted.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The writing time constant τ as a function of the grating period Λ in the form τ versus Λ−2. Straight-line fitting: τ = 2.94 + 5.08 Λ−2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gain coefficient Γ and the inverse of the time constant τ−1 as a function of the pump intensity P. Straight line fitting: τ−1 = 4.27(P + 2.98).

Equations (6)

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I ( t ) = { [ A ( A A 0 ) exp ( t / τ ) ] 2 0 t ( π / ω ) A 0 2 π / ω t ( 2 π / ω ) ,
C ω = A 0 2 π [ i ( g 1 ) g ( g 1 ) ( 1 + e π z ) i + z + ( g 1 ) 2 ( 1 + e 2 π z ) 2 ( i + 2 z ) ] ,
Γ = 2 π n 3 r 41 λ cos θ 2 π k B T e Λ [ 1 + ( Λ D / Λ ) 2 ] 1 ( 1 + σ d / σ p h ) ,
Λ D = 2 π ( k B T e 2 N E ) 1 / 2
τ = τ di 1 + D τ r k 2 1 + ζ D τ r k 2 ,
ζ = τ di ( s I 0 + β + γ n 0 )

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