Abstract

A single-mode lead silicate optical fiber has been fabricated to permit lower-power all-optical switching. The core glass has a nonlinear index of refraction eight times that of silica. The loss of the fiber is less than 2 dB/m. Over 17π of phase shift was obtained, as measured by self-phase modulation, in a 29-cm length of fiber. At the 1-kW peak power level required to produce this large phase shift, two-photon absorption and stimulated Raman scattering did not significantly degrade the desired nonlinear behavior.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. R. Friberg, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, B. G. Sfez, P. W. Smith, Opt. Lett. 13, 904 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1989).
  3. S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Newhouse, D. L. Weidman, D. W. Hall, in Digest of Fourteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineering, London, 1988), p. 292;D. L. Weidman, M. A. Newhouse, D. W. Hall, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 107.
  5. N. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. Owyoung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 259 (1975).
  8. K. Kikhuchi, T. Okoshi, Opt. Lett. 8, 122 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. D. Kafka, T. M. Baer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 341 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Faulstich, D. Krause, N. Neurot, F. Reitmayer, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975), paper TuB5.
  12. V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, Opt. Lett. 14, 1140 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. L. Smith, in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. III, Pt. 1, p. 229.

1989 (2)

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, Opt. Lett. 14, 1140 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1978 (2)

R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

N. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. Owyoung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 259 (1975).

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1989).

Andrejco, M. J.

Baer, T. M.

J. D. Kafka, T. M. Baer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 341 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boling, N.

N. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. Owyoung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Delong, K. W.

Dumbaugh, W. H.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Faulstich, M.

M. Faulstich, D. Krause, N. Neurot, F. Reitmayer, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975), paper TuB5.

Friberg, S. R.

Glass, A. J.

N. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. Owyoung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. W.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Newhouse, D. L. Weidman, D. W. Hall, in Digest of Fourteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineering, London, 1988), p. 292;D. L. Weidman, M. A. Newhouse, D. W. Hall, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 107.

Kafka, J. D.

J. D. Kafka, T. M. Baer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 341 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kikhuchi, K.

Krause, D.

M. Faulstich, D. Krause, N. Neurot, F. Reitmayer, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975), paper TuB5.

Lin, C.

R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 259 (1975).

Mizrahi, V.

Neurot, N.

M. Faulstich, D. Krause, N. Neurot, F. Reitmayer, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975), paper TuB5.

Newhouse, M. A.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Newhouse, D. L. Weidman, D. W. Hall, in Digest of Fourteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineering, London, 1988), p. 292;D. L. Weidman, M. A. Newhouse, D. W. Hall, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 107.

Okoshi, T.

Owyoung, A.

N. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. Owyoung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Reitmayer, F.

M. Faulstich, D. Krause, N. Neurot, F. Reitmayer, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975), paper TuB5.

Saifi, M. A.

Sfez, B. G.

Silberberg, Y.

Smith, P. W.

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. III, Pt. 1, p. 229.

Stegeman, G. I.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 259 (1975).

Weidman, D. L.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Newhouse, D. L. Weidman, D. W. Hall, in Digest of Fourteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineering, London, 1988), p. 292;D. L. Weidman, M. A. Newhouse, D. W. Hall, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 107.

Weiner, A. M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Kafka, T. M. Baer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 341 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. Owyoung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 259 (1975).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1989).

M. A. Newhouse, D. L. Weidman, D. W. Hall, in Digest of Fourteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineering, London, 1988), p. 292;D. L. Weidman, M. A. Newhouse, D. W. Hall, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 107.

W. L. Smith, in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. III, Pt. 1, p. 229.

M. Faulstich, D. Krause, N. Neurot, F. Reitmayer, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975), paper TuB5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental SPM measurements and the theoretical fits (smooth curves with oscillatory central structure) for peak powers of (a) 305 W and (b) 537 W.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SPM outside peak separation versus the guided peak power. The solid curve shows the theoretically expected results, and the dashed curves indicate the effects of the uncertainties in the parameters used in the theory.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in transmission as a function of the incident peak power and the fit (solid line) with a TPA coefficient of 7.2 × 10−4 cm/GW.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Materials and Optical Properties of the Core and Cladding Glasses of the Enhanced-Nonlinearity Lead Silicate Fiber

Equations (2)

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n = n 0 + γ P A eff ,
PL = λ A eff 4 γ .

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