Abstract

A time-gated technique to improve the possibility of localizing spatial differences in absorption when transilluminating a turbid, highly scattering medium, such as human tissue, is demonstrated. When transmitting picosecond laser pulses and detecting photons on the opposite side of the object, the contrast can be strongly enhanced by detecting only the photons with the shortest traveling time. Measurements on a 35-mm-thick tissue phantom with 5-mm-diameter absorbing objects inside are reported with data for a human hand in vivo. Implications for optical mammography (diaphanography) are discussed.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. J. Watmough, Radiology 147, 89 (1983).
    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  4. S. Ertefai, A. E. Profio, Med. Phys. 12, 393 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, D. R. Wyman, in Photon Migration in Tissue, B. Chance, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 28, 2331 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. A. Navarro, A. E. Profio, Med. Phys. 15, 181 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  15. R. Berg, M.S. thesis, Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-106 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1989).

1989 (4)

1988 (2)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Navarro, A. E. Profio, Med. Phys. 15, 181 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. M. Maarek, G. Jarry, J. Crowe, M.-H. Bui, D. Laurent, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 24, 407 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

B. Drexler, J. L. Davis, G. Schofield, Radiology 157, 41 (1985).
[PubMed]

S. Ertefai, A. E. Profio, Med. Phys. 12, 393 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

D. J. Watmough, Radiology 147, 89 (1983).
[PubMed]

1980 (1)

B. Ohlsson, J. Gundersen, D.-M. Nilsson, World J. Surg. 4, 701 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramson, N. H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Andersson-Engels, S.

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, in Laser Spectroscopy IX, M. Feld, ed. (Academic, New York, 1989), pp. 500–504.

Andreola, S.

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldeck, P.

Berg, R.

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, in Laser Spectroscopy IX, M. Feld, ed. (Academic, New York, 1989), pp. 500–504.

R. Berg, M.S. thesis, Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-106 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1989).

Bertoni, A.

Bjelkhagen, H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bui, M.-H.

J. M. Maarek, G. Jarry, J. Crowe, M.-H. Bui, D. Laurent, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 24, 407 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, J.

J. M. Maarek, G. Jarry, J. Crowe, M.-H. Bui, D. Laurent, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 24, 407 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. L.

B. Drexler, J. L. Davis, G. Schofield, Radiology 157, 41 (1985).
[PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, B.

B. Drexler, J. L. Davis, G. Schofield, Radiology 157, 41 (1985).
[PubMed]

Ertefai, S.

S. Ertefai, A. E. Profio, Med. Phys. 12, 393 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flock, S. T.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, D. R. Wyman, in Photon Migration in Tissue, B. Chance, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989).

Gundersen, J.

B. Ohlsson, J. Gundersen, D.-M. Nilsson, World J. Surg. 4, 701 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P. P.

Ichimura, T.

M. Toida, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 548–550.

Inaba, H.

M. Toida, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 548–550.

Jarry, G.

J. M. Maarek, G. Jarry, J. Crowe, M.-H. Bui, D. Laurent, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 24, 407 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, J.

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, in Laser Spectroscopy IX, M. Feld, ed. (Academic, New York, 1989), pp. 500–504.

Laurent, D.

J. M. Maarek, G. Jarry, J. Crowe, M.-H. Bui, D. Laurent, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 24, 407 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

Maarek, J. M.

J. M. Maarek, G. Jarry, J. Crowe, M.-H. Bui, D. Laurent, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 24, 407 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, R.

Melloni, E.

Navarro, G. A.

G. A. Navarro, A. E. Profio, Med. Phys. 15, 181 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, D.-M.

B. Ohlsson, J. Gundersen, D.-M. Nilsson, World J. Surg. 4, 701 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohlsson, B.

B. Ohlsson, J. Gundersen, D.-M. Nilsson, World J. Surg. 4, 701 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 28, 2331 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, D. R. Wyman, in Photon Migration in Tissue, B. Chance, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989).

Profio, A. E.

G. A. Navarro, A. E. Profio, Med. Phys. 15, 181 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ertefai, A. E. Profio, Med. Phys. 12, 393 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schofield, G.

B. Drexler, J. L. Davis, G. Schofield, Radiology 157, 41 (1985).
[PubMed]

Serafin, J.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sichirollo, A. E.

Spears, K. G.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, K.

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, in Laser Spectroscopy IX, M. Feld, ed. (Academic, New York, 1989), pp. 500–504.

Svanberg, S.

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, in Laser Spectroscopy IX, M. Feld, ed. (Academic, New York, 1989), pp. 500–504.

Toida, M.

M. Toida, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 548–550.

van der Zee, P.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watmough, D. J.

D. J. Watmough, Radiology 147, 89 (1983).
[PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 28, 2331 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, D. R. Wyman, in Photon Migration in Tissue, B. Chance, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989).

Wong, K. S.

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyman, D. R.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, D. R. Wyman, in Photon Migration in Tissue, B. Chance, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989).

Yoo, K. M.

Zhu, X.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

J. M. Maarek, G. Jarry, J. Crowe, M.-H. Bui, D. Laurent, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 24, 407 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (2)

G. A. Navarro, A. E. Profio, Med. Phys. 15, 181 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ertefai, A. E. Profio, Med. Phys. 12, 393 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (2)

D. J. Watmough, Radiology 147, 89 (1983).
[PubMed]

B. Drexler, J. L. Davis, G. Schofield, Radiology 157, 41 (1985).
[PubMed]

World J. Surg. (1)

B. Ohlsson, J. Gundersen, D.-M. Nilsson, World J. Surg. 4, 701 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. Toida, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 548–550.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, D. R. Wyman, in Photon Migration in Tissue, B. Chance, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989).

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, in Laser Spectroscopy IX, M. Feld, ed. (Academic, New York, 1989), pp. 500–504.

R. Berg, M.S. thesis, Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-106 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical detected time-dispersion curves. The dotted curve shows the dispersion curve obtained when transilluminating the 35-mm-thick paraffin phantom. The solid curve shows the result when transilluminating a 34-mm-thick breast sample in vitro 1 h postmastectomy. The impulse response function of the system (apparatus function) is also given.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Top) Sketch of the paraffin phantom with pieces of black rubber cord inserted into it. (Bottom) Detected light intensity when scanning over the phantom with a resolution of 1 mm. The solid curve shows the result when light is detected the first 100 psec of every dispersion curve, i.e., the time-gated technique. The dashed curve shows the total amount of light detected at each point. The curves are arbitrarily normalized.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Detected light intensity when scanning across a hand in vivo. The solid curve corresponds to the light detected during the first 80 psec, and the dotted curve is the total detected light.

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