Abstract

Broadband squeezed states of the electromagnetic field are generated by degenerate parametric downconversion with pulse-light excitation in a Ba2NaNb5O15 crystal, in which noncritical type I phase matching is attained. Noise reduction below the level of the vacuum fluctuation is clearly observed over a detection bandwidth from dc to approximately 70 MHz. The minimum noise level obtained in the quiet quadrature is 1.1 dB below the shot-noise level. The scheme used in the present experiment is simple and promising for further improvement of squeezing. The relation between squeezing and parametric fluorescence is discussed quantitatively for the first time to the authors' knowledge.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. J. Kimble, D. F. Walls, eds., feature on squeezed states of the electromagnetic field, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1450–1741 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Takahasi, Adv. Commun. Syst. 1, 227 (1965).
  4. D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1397 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. F. Walls, Nature (London) 306, 141 (1983), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. Laporta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987);M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);Opt. Lett. 13, 476 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. Laporta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. P. Yuen, V. W. Chan, Opt. Lett. 8, 177 (1983);B. L. Schumaker, Opt. Lett. 9, 189 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. J. Pressley, ed., CRC Handbook of Lasers (Chemical Rubber Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), p. 497.

1988 (2)

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (4)

L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. Laporta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. Laporta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987);M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);Opt. Lett. 13, 476 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Kimble, D. F. Walls, eds., feature on squeezed states of the electromagnetic field, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1450–1741 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

1974 (1)

D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1397 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

H. Takahasi, Adv. Commun. Syst. 1, 227 (1965).

Chan, V. W.

DeVoe, R. G.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. Laporta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. Laporta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987);M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);Opt. Lett. 13, 476 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L. W.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, A.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. Laporta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987);M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);Opt. Lett. 13, 476 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. Laporta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levenson, M. D.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machida, S.

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, S. F.

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perlmutter, S. H.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potasek, M. J.

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. Laporta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. M.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. Laporta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. Laporta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987);M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);Opt. Lett. 13, 476 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoler, D.

D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1397 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Takahasi, H.

H. Takahasi, Adv. Commun. Syst. 1, 227 (1965).

Valley, J. F.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walls, D. F.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Walls, Nature (London) 306, 141 (1983), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L.-A.

L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuen, H. P.

Yurke, B.

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. Laporta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. Laporta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987);M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);Opt. Lett. 13, 476 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Commun. Syst. (1)

H. Takahasi, Adv. Commun. Syst. 1, 227 (1965).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

H. J. Kimble, D. F. Walls, eds., feature on squeezed states of the electromagnetic field, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1450–1741 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

D. F. Walls, Nature (London) 306, 141 (1983), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. Laporta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987);M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);Opt. Lett. 13, 476 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. Laporta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1397 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. J. Pressley, ed., CRC Handbook of Lasers (Chemical Rubber Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), p. 497.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental apparatus. The second harmonic generated in a KTP crystal is used to pump the parametric amplifier. The squeezed light is generated in a nonlinear crystal, BNN, which is heated to the phase-matching temperature. The LO phase is swept by a piezoelectrically controlled mirror (PZT). The squeezed noise is detected with a balanced homodyne detector (splitter BS2, photodiodes PD1 and PD2) and observed on a spectrum analyzer (Anritsu Model MS2601A). A low-pass filter is used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Result of broadband squeezing. Curve (a): The power spectrum of the amplifier input noise. The peak appearing at 41 MHz is radio-frequency pickup from the mode locker. Curve (b): The noise power spectrum of the shot noise with a photocurrent of 0.8 mA at each photodiode. The pump or squeezed light is blocked. Curve (c): The noise power spectrum of homodyne-detected squeezed light. The spectrum-analyzer frequency and the LO phase ϕLO are swept simultaneously. Noise power is modulated as a function of ϕLO. The time axis indicates the sweep time of the spectrum analyzer. The radio-frequency bandwidth is 300 kHz; the video bandwidth is 10 Hz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Noise power for the shot noise (dotted curve) and the squeezed light (solid curve) at a fixed radio frequency, 5 MHz, as a function of LO phase. The radio-frequency bandwidth is 300 kHz; the video bandwidth is 1 Hz.

Equations (1)

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P ± ( ω ) = [ η exp ( ± 2 r ) + 1 η ] P LO G ( ω ) + P A ,

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