Abstract

Bacteriorhodopsin exhibits strong nonlinear and saturation behavior with very low light intensities (∼10 mW/cm2). A model and an experimental study of the saturation are described. Four-wave mixing experiments are used for obtaining phase conjugation and information on the holographic resolution of the material. Two kinds of samples were prepared and used in the experiments: films of bacteriorhodopsin in a solid polyvinylalcohol (polymer) matrix and in water.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Y. Huang, Z. Chen, A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Chen, A. Lewis, H. Takei, I. Nebenzahl, “Application of bacteriorhodopsin oriented in polyvinylalcohol films as an erasable optical storage medium,” submitted to Appl. Opt.
  3. E. Y. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taraneko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 450 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Lewis, V. Del Priore, Phys.Today 41(1), 38 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Rayfield, Phys. Bull. 34, 483 (1989).
  7. R. R. Birge, C. F. Zhang, A. L. Laurence, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Fine Particle Society (Fine Particle Society, Santa Clara, Calif., 1988).
  8. C. Mobarry, A. Lewis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 700, 304 (1986).
  9. M. Ottolenghi, Adv. Photochem. 270, 29 (1980).
  10. R. Korenstein, B. Hess, Nature (London) 270, 184 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. H. Hanamoto, P. Dupuis, M. A. El-Sayed, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7083 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

G. Rayfield, Phys. Bull. 34, 483 (1989).

J. Y. Huang, Z. Chen, A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Lewis, V. Del Priore, Phys.Today 41(1), 38 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Y. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taraneko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 450 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. Mobarry, A. Lewis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 700, 304 (1986).

1985 (1)

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. H. Hanamoto, P. Dupuis, M. A. El-Sayed, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7083 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

M. Ottolenghi, Adv. Photochem. 270, 29 (1980).

1977 (1)

R. Korenstein, B. Hess, Nature (London) 270, 184 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Birge, R. R.

R. R. Birge, C. F. Zhang, A. L. Laurence, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Fine Particle Society (Fine Particle Society, Santa Clara, Calif., 1988).

Burykin, N. M.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

J. Y. Huang, Z. Chen, A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, A. Lewis, H. Takei, I. Nebenzahl, “Application of bacteriorhodopsin oriented in polyvinylalcohol films as an erasable optical storage medium,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Del Priore, V.

A. Lewis, V. Del Priore, Phys.Today 41(1), 38 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dukova, T. V.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, P.

J. H. Hanamoto, P. Dupuis, M. A. El-Sayed, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7083 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

J. H. Hanamoto, P. Dupuis, M. A. El-Sayed, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7083 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanamoto, J. H.

J. H. Hanamoto, P. Dupuis, M. A. El-Sayed, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7083 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, B.

R. Korenstein, B. Hess, Nature (London) 270, 184 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

J. Y. Huang, Z. Chen, A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Korchemskaya, E. Y.

E. Y. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taraneko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 450 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Korchemskaya, E. Ya.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Korenstein, R.

R. Korenstein, B. Hess, Nature (London) 270, 184 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Laurence, A. L.

R. R. Birge, C. F. Zhang, A. L. Laurence, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Fine Particle Society (Fine Particle Society, Santa Clara, Calif., 1988).

Lewis, A.

J. Y. Huang, Z. Chen, A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, V. Del Priore, Phys.Today 41(1), 38 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Mobarry, A. Lewis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 700, 304 (1986).

Z. Chen, A. Lewis, H. Takei, I. Nebenzahl, “Application of bacteriorhodopsin oriented in polyvinylalcohol films as an erasable optical storage medium,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Mobarry, C.

C. Mobarry, A. Lewis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 700, 304 (1986).

Nebenzahl, I.

Z. Chen, A. Lewis, H. Takei, I. Nebenzahl, “Application of bacteriorhodopsin oriented in polyvinylalcohol films as an erasable optical storage medium,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Ottolenghi, M.

M. Ottolenghi, Adv. Photochem. 270, 29 (1980).

Rayfield, G.

G. Rayfield, Phys. Bull. 34, 483 (1989).

Soskin, M. S.

E. Y. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taraneko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 450 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Takei, H.

Z. Chen, A. Lewis, H. Takei, I. Nebenzahl, “Application of bacteriorhodopsin oriented in polyvinylalcohol films as an erasable optical storage medium,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Taraneko, V. B.

E. Y. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taraneko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 450 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Taranenko, V. B.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vsevolodov, N. N.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. F.

R. R. Birge, C. F. Zhang, A. L. Laurence, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Fine Particle Society (Fine Particle Society, Santa Clara, Calif., 1988).

Adv. Photochem. (1)

M. Ottolenghi, Adv. Photochem. 270, 29 (1980).

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. Y. Huang, Z. Chen, A. Lewis, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

R. Korenstein, B. Hess, Nature (London) 270, 184 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dukova, N. N. Vsevolodov, Opt. Commun. 54, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Bull. (1)

G. Rayfield, Phys. Bull. 34, 483 (1989).

Phys.Today (1)

A. Lewis, V. Del Priore, Phys.Today 41(1), 38 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

J. H. Hanamoto, P. Dupuis, M. A. El-Sayed, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7083 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

C. Mobarry, A. Lewis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 700, 304 (1986).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Y. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taraneko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 450 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. R. Birge, C. F. Zhang, A. L. Laurence, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Fine Particle Society (Fine Particle Society, Santa Clara, Calif., 1988).

Z. Chen, A. Lewis, H. Takei, I. Nebenzahl, “Application of bacteriorhodopsin oriented in polyvinylalcohol films as an erasable optical storage medium,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified diagram of the BR photocycle. The transition BR → M can be induced by 570 ± 75-nm photons through short-lived intermediates. The M → BR thermal lifetime is τ, but this transition can be induced photochemically by 412 ± 75-nm photons.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmissivity measurements (triangles) of the solid BR-PVA sample no. 1 as a function of the input-beam intensity (by varying the input) for a wavelength of 514.5 nm. The solid curve describes the theoretical results, with the parameters given in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Four-wave mixing configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of the diffracted phase-conjugate image carried by beam 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase-conjugate reflectivity R (in arbitrary units) as a function of the angle φ for the liquid sample. The intensities in this experiment were I1 = I4 = 370 mW/cm2 and I2 = 863 mW/cm2. The reflectivity of the solid (BRPVA) slide was almost independent of the angle (it depends, however, on the beams' intensities).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitting Parameters of Our Samples

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d M d t = σ 1 I ˜ B M τ σ 2 I ˜ M ,
B = N [ 1 + σ 2 τ I ˜ 1 + ( σ 1 + σ 2 ) τ I ˜ ] , M = N B ,
α = N σ 1 [ 1 + 2 σ 2 τ I ˜ 1 + ( σ 1 + σ 2 ) τ I ˜ ] = α 0 g I 1 + I / I S ,
d I d z = α ( I ) I .
I S i I S j = τ j τ i , g i g j = N i N j τ i τ j ,

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