Abstract

Photoinduced guided index changes approaching 10−4 in the range 488–784 nm, measured using a simple interferometric technique, are reported in germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers exposed to the 488-nm line of an Ar+ laser running multifrequency. The wavelength dependence and dynamics of the writing process are characterized, and the material dispersion of the induced Δn(λ) is shown to be weak. The effect is placed in the context of related research on color centers in these fibers, and two different mechanisms are proposed that lead to quantitative estimates in rough agreement with the measured Δn values.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, Y. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 3, 66 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Stone, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4371 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, in Proceedings of International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC, Kobe, Japan, 1989), paper 21C3–4.
  4. M. A. Saifi, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, A. M. Weiner, M. J. Andrejco, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper THH3.
  5. Assuming that P = 100 mW in the core and an induced loss of α = 0.23 m−1 (1000 dB/km), the temperature rise in the core would be (αP/2πk)ln[rf/w(488)] ∼ 0.0016 K, where k = 9.2 W/mK, rf = 40 μm is the fiber outer radius, and w(488) = 0.76 μm is the spot radius at 488 nm. Given that dn/dT = 1.3 × 10−5 K−1, this predicts a thermal Δn of 2 × 10−8.
  6. SeeL. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  7. M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett 13, 592 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.
  9. P. D. Townsend, J. C. Kelly, Colour Centres and Imperfections in Insulators and Semiconductors (Chatto and Windus, London, 1973), pp. 35ff.

1989 (1)

SeeL. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett 13, 592 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. Stone, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4371 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Andrejco, M. J.

M. A. Saifi, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, A. M. Weiner, M. J. Andrejco, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper THH3.

Bergot, M.-V.

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett 13, 592 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farries, M. C.

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett 13, 592 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett 13, 592 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fouckhardt, H.

M. A. Saifi, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, A. M. Weiner, M. J. Andrejco, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper THH3.

Friebele, E. J.

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.

Fujii, Y.

Griscom, D. L.

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.

Hand, D. P.

D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, in Proceedings of International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC, Kobe, Japan, 1989), paper 21C3–4.

Hill, K. O.

Johnson, D. C.

Kawasaki, B. S.

Kelly, J. C.

P. D. Townsend, J. C. Kelly, Colour Centres and Imperfections in Insulators and Semiconductors (Chatto and Windus, London, 1973), pp. 35ff.

Li, L.

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett 13, 592 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poyntz-Wright, L. J.

SeeL. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett 13, 592 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

SeeL. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett 13, 592 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, in Proceedings of International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC, Kobe, Japan, 1989), paper 21C3–4.

Saifi, M. A.

M. A. Saifi, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, A. M. Weiner, M. J. Andrejco, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper THH3.

Silberberg, Y.

M. A. Saifi, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, A. M. Weiner, M. J. Andrejco, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper THH3.

Smithson, A.

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett 13, 592 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, J.

J. Stone, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4371 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, J. C. Kelly, Colour Centres and Imperfections in Insulators and Semiconductors (Chatto and Windus, London, 1973), pp. 35ff.

Weiner, A. M.

M. A. Saifi, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, A. M. Weiner, M. J. Andrejco, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper THH3.

Electron. Lett. (1)

SeeL. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Stone, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4371 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett (1)

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett 13, 592 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.

P. D. Townsend, J. C. Kelly, Colour Centres and Imperfections in Insulators and Semiconductors (Chatto and Windus, London, 1973), pp. 35ff.

D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, in Proceedings of International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC, Kobe, Japan, 1989), paper 21C3–4.

M. A. Saifi, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, A. M. Weiner, M. J. Andrejco, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper THH3.

Assuming that P = 100 mW in the core and an induced loss of α = 0.23 m−1 (1000 dB/km), the temperature rise in the core would be (αP/2πk)ln[rf/w(488)] ∼ 0.0016 K, where k = 9.2 W/mK, rf = 40 μm is the fiber outer radius, and w(488) = 0.76 μm is the spot radius at 488 nm. Given that dn/dT = 1.3 × 10−5 K−1, this predicts a thermal Δn of 2 × 10−8.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cycling of the fringes, including relaxation and recovery after turning the 488-nm laser light off and on. R633 and R488 are the reflected signals at port 2b.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Initial rate of increase of Δn versus the intensity level at 488 nm. The solid curve is a quadratic fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Saturation of Δn(488) with time at a constant intensity of 60 mW/μm2. The fit (solid curve) was obtained using two decaying exponential rates: 1.87 × 10−3 and 7.46 × 10−5 sec−1. Approximately the same values produced a good fit for Δn(633).

Equations (5)

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Δ n ( λ ) = i = 213 , 240 , 281 A i / [ 1 ( λ i / λ ) 2 ] .
Δ α ̂ i = ( E i 2 π 3 / 2 / W i λ i ) A i ,
Δ N i = [ 8.7 × 10 20 n / ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 ] W i Δ α ̂ i / f i m 3 ,
Δ n = [ 3 χ ( 3 ) / 2 n 0 ] E dip 2 ( r ) d V / d V ,
Δ n [ 3 χ ( 3 ) N od h ν / 0 r n 0 ] ,

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