Abstract

The codoping of a heavy-metal fluoride glass by two rare-earth ions, erbium and ytterbium, permits the semiconductor laser infrared excitation of two visible neighboring fluorescence lines of erbium by upconversion, the intensity ratio of which is a single variable function of temperature.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. T. V. Grattan, Meas. J. Int. Meas. Conf. 2, 134 (1984);G. D. Pitt, P. Extance, R. C. Neat, D. N. Batchelder, R. E. Jones, J. A. Barnett, R. H. Pratt, IEEE Proc. 132J, 214 (1986).
  2. K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, C. A. Wilson, J. Phys. E. 20, 1201 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. T. Agousti, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 37, 470 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Schulteis, H. Amstutz, M. Kaufmann, Opt. Lett. 13, 782 (1988);D. A. Christensen, V. A. Vaguine, in Transducers '87 (Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1987), p. 493.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. L. Hammer, in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1986).
  6. M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, R. N. Brown, Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 15, 125 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Graig, S. T. Davey, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 287 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jørgensen, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths,K. A. Gschneidner, L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 9, Chap. 58, pp. 1–90;D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Lucas, G. Fonteneau, A. Bouaggad, Z. X. Hua, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 799, 101 (1987);M. Poulain, Technical Report on Rare Earth Spectroscopy in Fluoride Glasses (Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, 1988).
  11. J. C. Wright, in Radiationless Processes in Molecules and Condensed Phases, F. K. Fong, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Berlin1976), Chap. 4, p. 239.
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. J. Suscavage, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 4644 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Armagan, B. Di Bartolo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 974 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. D. Kingsley, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 175 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (5)

A. T. Agousti, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Schulteis, H. Amstutz, M. Kaufmann, Opt. Lett. 13, 782 (1988);D. A. Christensen, V. A. Vaguine, in Transducers '87 (Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1987), p. 493.
[CrossRef]

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Graig, S. T. Davey, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 287 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. J. Suscavage, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 4644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Armagan, B. Di Bartolo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 974 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

J. Lucas, G. Fonteneau, A. Bouaggad, Z. X. Hua, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 799, 101 (1987);M. Poulain, Technical Report on Rare Earth Spectroscopy in Fluoride Glasses (Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, 1988).

K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, C. A. Wilson, J. Phys. E. 20, 1201 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

K. T. V. Grattan, Meas. J. Int. Meas. Conf. 2, 134 (1984);G. D. Pitt, P. Extance, R. C. Neat, D. N. Batchelder, R. E. Jones, J. A. Barnett, R. H. Pratt, IEEE Proc. 132J, 214 (1986).

1983 (1)

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, R. N. Brown, Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 15, 125 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. D. Kingsley, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Agousti, A. T.

A. T. Agousti, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Graig, S. T. Davey, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 287 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Amstutz, H.

Armagan, G.

G. Armagan, B. Di Bartolo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 974 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bouaggad, A.

J. Lucas, G. Fonteneau, A. Bouaggad, Z. X. Hua, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 799, 101 (1987);M. Poulain, Technical Report on Rare Earth Spectroscopy in Fluoride Glasses (Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, 1988).

Brown, R. N.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, R. N. Brown, Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Graig, S. T. Davey, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 287 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Di Bartolo, B.

G. Armagan, B. Di Bartolo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 974 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Drexhage, M. G.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, R. N. Brown, Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eckstein, Y.

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 15, 125 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fonteneau, G.

J. Lucas, G. Fonteneau, A. Bouaggad, Z. X. Hua, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 799, 101 (1987);M. Poulain, Technical Report on Rare Earth Spectroscopy in Fluoride Glasses (Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, 1988).

Graig, S. P.

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Graig, S. T. Davey, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 287 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

A. T. Agousti, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, C. A. Wilson, J. Phys. E. 20, 1201 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. T. V. Grattan, Meas. J. Int. Meas. Conf. 2, 134 (1984);G. D. Pitt, P. Extance, R. C. Neat, D. N. Batchelder, R. E. Jones, J. A. Barnett, R. H. Pratt, IEEE Proc. 132J, 214 (1986).

Hammer, A. L.

A. L. Hammer, in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1986).

Hua, Z. X.

J. Lucas, G. Fonteneau, A. Bouaggad, Z. X. Hua, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 799, 101 (1987);M. Poulain, Technical Report on Rare Earth Spectroscopy in Fluoride Glasses (Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, 1988).

Jørgensen, C. K.

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jørgensen, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths,K. A. Gschneidner, L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 9, Chap. 58, pp. 1–90;D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, M.

Kingsley, J. D.

J. D. Kingsley, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

J. Lucas, G. Fonteneau, A. Bouaggad, Z. X. Hua, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 799, 101 (1987);M. Poulain, Technical Report on Rare Earth Spectroscopy in Fluoride Glasses (Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, 1988).

Palmer, A. W.

A. T. Agousti, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, C. A. Wilson, J. Phys. E. 20, 1201 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Reisfeld, R.

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 15, 125 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jørgensen, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths,K. A. Gschneidner, L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 9, Chap. 58, pp. 1–90;D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schulteis, L.

Shinn, M. D.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, R. N. Brown, Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, W. A.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. J. Suscavage, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 4644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, R. N. Brown, Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Suscavage, M. J.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. J. Suscavage, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 4644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, C. A.

K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, C. A. Wilson, J. Phys. E. 20, 1201 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J. C.

J. C. Wright, in Radiationless Processes in Molecules and Condensed Phases, F. K. Fong, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Berlin1976), Chap. 4, p. 239.
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. C.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. J. Suscavage, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 4644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Graig, S. T. Davey, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 287 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Armagan, B. Di Bartolo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 974 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

A. T. Agousti, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. D. Kingsley, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. J. Suscavage, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 4644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

R. Reisfeld, Y. Eckstein, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 15, 125 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E. (1)

K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, C. A. Wilson, J. Phys. E. 20, 1201 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Meas. J. Int. Meas. Conf. (1)

K. T. V. Grattan, Meas. J. Int. Meas. Conf. 2, 134 (1984);G. D. Pitt, P. Extance, R. C. Neat, D. N. Batchelder, R. E. Jones, J. A. Barnett, R. H. Pratt, IEEE Proc. 132J, 214 (1986).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, R. N. Brown, Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. Lucas, G. Fonteneau, A. Bouaggad, Z. X. Hua, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 799, 101 (1987);M. Poulain, Technical Report on Rare Earth Spectroscopy in Fluoride Glasses (Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, 1988).

Other (3)

J. C. Wright, in Radiationless Processes in Molecules and Condensed Phases, F. K. Fong, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Berlin1976), Chap. 4, p. 239.
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jørgensen, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths,K. A. Gschneidner, L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. 9, Chap. 58, pp. 1–90;D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. J. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Hammer, in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1986).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Upconversion process between ytterbium and erbium levels. TE, energy transfer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence intensity ratio versus temperature for a ZBLA fluoride optical fiber, doped with 1% erbium, under direct absorption at 488 nm (argon laser).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical response of a ytterbium–erbium codoped fluoride glass versus Ti:sapphire laser excitation wavelength at various argon-laser powers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Erbium fluorescence signal amplitudes versus temperature obtained by upconversion with 970-nm semiconductor laser excitation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quadratic correlation between the erbium fluorescent signals and the laser input squared power (the fluorescent signals and laser power have been normalized to their maximum value).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity ratio of erbium fluorescent signals versus temperature for a ZBLA fluoride optical fiber, codoped with 9% ytterbium and 2% erbium and excited by upconversion at a 972-nm semiconductor laser wavelength.

Equations (1)

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1 / T = ( k / Δ E ) [ ln ( C ) ln ( R ) ] ,

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