Abstract

A more exact model is suggested for the description of nonlinear light propagation in fibers. In addition to the previously discussed self-phase modulation, parametric, dispersion, self-steepening, and Raman self-scattering effects, this model also takes into account the Stokes losses associated with the material excitation, the dependence of nonlinear effects on the light frequency, and the frequency dependence of the fiber mode area. The self-steepening effect is taken into account more correctly in comparison with previous models. The effects influence considerably the femtosecond soliton propagation. The model is generalized for the case of various fiber dispersion properties along the fiber length. The possibility of obtaining high-quality pulses of less than 15-fsec duration by compression of fundamental solitons with approximately 100-fsec duration in fibers with slowly decreasing dispersion is shown.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. A. Vysloukh, Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 1688 (1983)[Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1113 (1983)].
  3. K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, E. Commins, Opt. Commun. 48, 181 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. P. Agrawal, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1765 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, Y. C. Lee, H. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 11, 464 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Tzoar, M. Jain, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1266 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Anderson, M. Lisak, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1393 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Bourkoff, W. Zhao, R. I. Joseph, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 62, 284 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, D. V. Khaidarov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, Fiber Integrated Opt. 8, 61 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel'makh, A. A. Fomichev, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242 (1985)[JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985)].
  11. F. M. Mitchke, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 11, 659 (1986).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Manassah, M. Mustafa, R. Alfano, P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 197 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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  20. V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.
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  23. K. J. Blow, D. Wood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665 (1989).
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1989 (5)

E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, D. V. Khaidarov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, Fiber Integrated Opt. 8, 61 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Golovchenko, A. Ya. Karasik, E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, A. M. Prokhorov, Kvant. Electron. (Moscow) 16, 592 (1989).

K. J. Blow, D. Wood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, H. A. Haus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, S. V. Chernikov, Opt. Lett. 14, 1008 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

E. Bourkoff, W. Zhao, R. I. Joseph, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 62, 284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, Opt. Lett. 12, 54 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (5)

1985 (1)

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel'makh, A. A. Fomichev, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242 (1985)[JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985)].

1983 (3)

D. Anderson, M. Lisak, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1393 (1983).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Vysloukh, Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 1688 (1983)[Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1113 (1983)].

K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, E. Commins, Opt. Commun. 48, 181 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

N. Tzoar, M. Jain, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1266 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1973 (1)

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. W. Hellwarth, A. Owyoung, N. George, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1765 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R.

J. Manassah, M. Mustafa, R. Alfano, P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 197 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D.

D. Anderson, M. Lisak, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1393 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

K. J. Blow, D. Wood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, E. Commins, Opt. Commun. 48, 181 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bogatyrev, V. A.

V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.

Bourkoff, E.

E. Bourkoff, W. Zhao, R. I. Joseph, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 62, 284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bubnov, M. M.

V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.

Chen, H. H.

Chernikov, S. V.

E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, S. V. Chernikov, Opt. Lett. 14, 1008 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.

Christodoulides, D. N.

E. Bourkoff, W. Zhao, R. I. Joseph, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 62, 284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Commins, E.

K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, E. Commins, Opt. Commun. 48, 181 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. A. Golovchenko, A. Ya. Karasik, E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, A. M. Prokhorov, Kvant. Electron. (Moscow) 16, 592 (1989).

E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, D. V. Khaidarov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, Fiber Integrated Opt. 8, 61 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, S. V. Chernikov, Opt. Lett. 14, 1008 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel'makh, A. A. Fomichev, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242 (1985)[JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985)].

E. M. Dianov, L. M. Ivanov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper FA-5.

V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.

Doran, N. J.

K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, E. Commins, Opt. Commun. 48, 181 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fomichev, A. A.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel'makh, A. A. Fomichev, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242 (1985)[JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985)].

George, N.

R. W. Hellwarth, A. Owyoung, N. George, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Golovchenko, E. A.

E. A. Golovchenko, A. Ya. Karasik, E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, A. M. Prokhorov, Kvant. Electron. (Moscow) 16, 592 (1989).

Gordon, J. P.

Grudinin, A. B.

E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, D. V. Khaidarov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, Fiber Integrated Opt. 8, 61 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, A.

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. W. Hellwarth, A. Owyoung, N. George, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.

J. Manassah, M. Mustafa, R. Alfano, P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 197 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, L. M.

E. M. Dianov, L. M. Ivanov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper FA-5.

Jain, M.

N. Tzoar, M. Jain, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1266 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R. I.

E. Bourkoff, W. Zhao, R. I. Joseph, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 62, 284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Karasik, A. Ya.

E. A. Golovchenko, A. Ya. Karasik, E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, A. M. Prokhorov, Kvant. Electron. (Moscow) 16, 592 (1989).

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel'makh, A. A. Fomichev, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242 (1985)[JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985)].

Khaidarov, D. V.

E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, D. V. Khaidarov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, Fiber Integrated Opt. 8, 61 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Korobkin, D. V.

E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, D. V. Khaidarov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, Fiber Integrated Opt. 8, 61 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kuehl, H. H.

Kurkov, A. S.

V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.

Lee, Y. C.

Lisak, M.

D. Anderson, M. Lisak, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1393 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P. V.

E. A. Golovchenko, A. Ya. Karasik, E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, A. M. Prokhorov, Kvant. Electron. (Moscow) 16, 592 (1989).

E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, S. V. Chernikov, Opt. Lett. 14, 1008 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel'makh, A. A. Fomichev, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242 (1985)[JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985)].

E. M. Dianov, L. M. Ivanov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper FA-5.

V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.

Manassah, J.

J. Manassah, M. Mustafa, R. Alfano, P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 197 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

Menyuk, C. R.

Miroshnichenko, S. I.

V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.

Mitchke, F. M.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Mustafa, M.

J. Manassah, M. Mustafa, R. Alfano, P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 197 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Owyoung, A.

R. W. Hellwarth, A. Owyoung, N. George, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Pilipetskii, A. N.

E. A. Golovchenko, A. Ya. Karasik, E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, A. M. Prokhorov, Kvant. Electron. (Moscow) 16, 592 (1989).

Potasek, M. J.

G. P. Agrawal, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1765 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. A. Golovchenko, A. Ya. Karasik, E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, A. M. Prokhorov, Kvant. Electron. (Moscow) 16, 592 (1989).

E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, D. V. Khaidarov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, Fiber Integrated Opt. 8, 61 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, S. V. Chernikov, Opt. Lett. 14, 1008 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel'makh, A. A. Fomichev, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242 (1985)[JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985)].

E. M. Dianov, L. M. Ivanov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper FA-5.

Semeonov, S. L.

V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.

Semeonov, V. A.

V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.

Serkin, V. N.

E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, D. V. Khaidarov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, Fiber Integrated Opt. 8, 61 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel'makh, A. A. Fomichev, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242 (1985)[JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985)].

Stel'makh, M. F.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel'makh, A. A. Fomichev, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242 (1985)[JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985)].

Stolen, R. H.

Sysoliatin, A. A.

V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.

Tajima, K.

Tappert, F.

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Tzoar, N.

N. Tzoar, M. Jain, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1266 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V. A.

V. A. Vysloukh, Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 1688 (1983)[Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1113 (1983)].

Wai, P. K. A.

Wood, D.

K. J. Blow, D. Wood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

E. Bourkoff, W. Zhao, R. I. Joseph, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 62, 284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integrated Opt. (1)

E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, D. V. Khaidarov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, Fiber Integrated Opt. 8, 61 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. J. Blow, D. Wood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Manassah, M. Mustafa, R. Alfano, P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 197 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Kvant. Electron. (Moscow) (1)

E. A. Golovchenko, A. Ya. Karasik, E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, A. M. Prokhorov, Kvant. Electron. (Moscow) 16, 592 (1989).

Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) (1)

V. A. Vysloukh, Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 1688 (1983)[Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1113 (1983)].

Opt. Commun. (2)

K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, E. Commins, Opt. Commun. 48, 181 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Bourkoff, W. Zhao, R. I. Joseph, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 62, 284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

G. P. Agrawal, M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1765 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tzoar, M. Jain, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1266 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Anderson, M. Lisak, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1393 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Hellwarth, A. Owyoung, N. George, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel'makh, A. A. Fomichev, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242 (1985)[JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985)].

Other (2)

E. M. Dianov, L. M. Ivanov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper FA-5.

V. A. Bogatyrev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, P. V. Mamyshev, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. A. Semeonov, S. L. Semeonov, A. A. Sysoliatin, S. V. Chernikov, in Digest of Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD-9.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evolution of the pulse width and intensity of a fundamental soliton with initial duration τ0 (FWHM) = 1.763t0 = 130 fsec in a fiber with slowly decreasing dispersion. The parameters are β(ξ) = −1 + ξ/31, k1(ξ) = k1(0), k3(ξ) = k3(0), and ϒ = −1.73 × 10−3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Pulse and (b) its spectrum obtained by compression in a fiber with slowly decreasing dispersion of a fundamental soliton with τ0 = 65 fsec. The parameters are β(ξ) = −1 + ξ/20.2, k1(ξ) = k1(0), k3(ξ) = k3(0), ϒ = −3.46 × 10−3, and ξ = 18.1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Pulse and (b) its spectrum obtained by compression in a fiber with slowly decreasing dispersion of a fundamental soliton with τ0 = 50 fsec. The parameters are β(ξ) = −1 + ξ/9.3, k1(ξ) = k1(0), k3(ξ) = k3(0), ϒ = −2.7 × 10−2, and ξ = 6.62.

Equations (11)

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Δ E ( t , r ) ( 1 / c 2 ) 2 D ( t , r ) t 2 = ( 4 π / c 2 ) 2 P ( 3 ) ( t , r ) t 2 ,
D ( t , r ) = ( t , r ) E ( t t , r ) d t ,
P ( 3 ) ( t , r ) = E ( t , r ) R ( t ) | E ( t t , r ) | 2 d t ,
E ( t , r ) = d ω E ( ω , z ) U ( ω , r ) exp [ i k ( ω ) z i ω t ] ,
E ( ω , z ) [ Δ + ( ω , r ) ω 2 / c 2 k 2 ( ω ) ] U ( ω , r ) + U ( ω , r ) [ 2 z 2 + 2 i k ( ω ) z ] E ( ω , z ) = 4 π ω 2 c 2 d ω d ω [ E ( ω , z ) U ( ω , r ) × E ( ω , z ) U ( ω , r ) E * ( ω + ω ω , z ) × U ( ω + ω ω , r ) χ ( 3 ) ( ω ω ) exp ( i Δ k z ) ] .
E ( ω , z ) z = i 2 π ω c n eff ( ω ) d ω d ω [ G ( ω , ω , ω ) × E ( ω , z ) E ( ω , z ) E * ( ω , + ω ω , z ) × χ ( 3 ) ( ω ω ) exp ( i Δ k z ) ] ,
G ( ω , ω , ω ) = U ( ω , r ) U ( ω , r ) U ( ω + ω ω , r ) U ( ω , r ) d 2 r U 2 ( ω , r ) d 2 r .
k ( ω ) = k 0 + k 1 Δ ω + k 2 Δ ω 2 / 2 + k 3 Δ ω 3 / 6 + + k m Δ ω m / m ! , Δ ω = ω ω 0 , k 1 = ( 1 k ( ω ) / ω 1 | ω = ω 0 .
E ˜ ( Δ ω , z ) z i [ k 1 Δ ω + ( k 2 / 2 ) Δ ω 2 + + ( k m / m ! ) Δ ω m ] E ˜ ( Δ ω , z ) = i 2 π c n eff ( ω ) S ( ω ) ω 0 ( 1 + Δ ω ω 0 ) d ω d ω × [ E ˜ ( Δ ω , z ) E ˜ ( Δ ω , z ) E ˜ * ( Δ ω + Δ ω Δ ω , z ) χ ( 3 ) × ( Δ ω Δ ω ) ] .
[ ξ + i β ( ξ ) / 2 2 τ 3 γ ( ξ ) 3 τ 3 ] Ψ ( τ , ξ ) = i Ψ ( τ , ξ ) | Ψ ( τ τ , ξ ) | 2 r ( τ ) d τ σ τ × [ Ψ ( τ , ξ ) | Ψ ( τ τ , ξ ) | 2 r ( τ ) d τ ] .
z [ n eff ( ω ) S ( ω ) | E ( ω , z ) | 2 / ω d ω ] = 0.

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