Abstract

The detected signal-to-noise power ratio is evaluated for fiber links with periodic amplification. It is shown that the highest ratio is achieved in the limit of a distributed amplifier (g = α), but that, alternatively, periodic amplification at intervals of α−1 entails a penalty of less than 2 dB compared with the (ideal) distributed case.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Simon, J. Opt. Commun. 4, 51 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.
  4. R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1560 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Olshansky, Electron Lett. 24, 1363 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kogelnik, A. Yariv, Proc. IEEE 52, 165 (1964);A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 4th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), p. 572.
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Judy, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Göteburg, Sweden, 1989, paper TuP-11.
  9. A. Yariv, S. Wu, H. Blauvelt, N. Kwong, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper JFA1.

1989 (1)

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. Olshansky, Electron Lett. 24, 1363 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. C. Simon, J. Opt. Commun. 4, 51 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1560 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

H. Kogelnik, A. Yariv, Proc. IEEE 52, 165 (1964);A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 4th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), p. 572.
[CrossRef]

Aida, K.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Becker, P. C.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Blauvelt, H.

A. Yariv, S. Wu, H. Blauvelt, N. Kwong, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper JFA1.

Desurvire, E.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. R.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hagimoto, K.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Horiguchi, M.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Iwatsuki, K.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Jauncey, I. M.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Judy, A.

A. Judy, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Göteburg, Sweden, 1989, paper TuP-11.

Kimura, T.

T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1560 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, A. Yariv, Proc. IEEE 52, 165 (1964);A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 4th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), p. 572.
[CrossRef]

Kwong, N.

A. Yariv, S. Wu, H. Blauvelt, N. Kwong, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper JFA1.

Mears, R. J.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1560 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Nakazawa, M.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Olshansky, R.

R. Olshansky, Electron Lett. 24, 1363 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Simon, J. C.

J. C. Simon, J. Opt. Commun. 4, 51 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Talman, J. R.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

A. Yariv, S. Wu, H. Blauvelt, N. Kwong, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper JFA1.

Yamamoto, Y.

T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1560 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

H. Kogelnik, A. Yariv, Proc. IEEE 52, 165 (1964);A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 4th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), p. 572.
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, S. Wu, H. Blauvelt, N. Kwong, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper JFA1.

Electron Lett. (1)

R. Olshansky, Electron Lett. 24, 1363 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1560 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

J. C. Simon, J. Opt. Commun. 4, 51 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. Kogelnik, A. Yariv, Proc. IEEE 52, 165 (1964);A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 4th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), p. 572.
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. Judy, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Göteburg, Sweden, 1989, paper TuP-11.

A. Yariv, S. Wu, H. Blauvelt, N. Kwong, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper JFA1.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical amplifier with a power gain G and an input signal power S0. F is the total power of the ASE power at the output of the amplifier in the appropriate bandwidth Δν.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fiber link with periodic amplification.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Universal plot of the degradation of the SNR compared with the initial (z = 0) value as a function of z′ = αz: curve (a), continuous amplification (g = α); curve (b), periodic amplification every z0 = α−1; curve (c), periodic amplification every z0 = 2α−1. The horizontal scale is in units of absorption length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SNR of detected signal in a fiber link. Curve (a), a continuous amplifier with g = α, μ = 1. Curve (b), discrete amplifiers employed every absorption length α−1 = 21.76 km (0.2-dB/km fiber loss), μ = 1. Curve (c), no amplification and detection with a receiver with a noise figure of 4 dB. The power launched into the fiber is 5 mW, the fiber loss is 0.2 dB/km, λ = 1.55 μm, the detection bandwidth is Δν = 109, and the detector load impedance is 1000 Ω. Curve (b) is to be read only at multiples of z′ = 1, the amplifiers' locations. Curve (c) is to be read at z′ = 2, 4,….

Equations (19)

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i s 2 ( z ) = S 2 ( z ) e 2 ( h ν ) 2 = S 0 2 e 2 ( h ν ) 2 exp ( 2 α z ) ,
i n 2 ( z ) = 2 e 2 S ( z ) Δ ν h ν = 2 e 2 S 0 Δ ν h ν exp ( α z ) ,
SNR | at z i s 2 ( z ) i n 2 ( z ) = S 0 2 h ν Δ ν exp ( α z ) .
F 0 = ( G 1 ) μ h ν Δ ν ,
SNR in = ( S 0 e h ν ) 2 2 e 2 S h ν Δ ν = S 0 2 h ν Δ ν .
i s 2 out = ( G S 0 e h ν ) 2 ,
i shot 2 out = 2 e 2 G S 0 h ν Δ ν .
i n 2 sig ASE = 4 e 2 S out F out ( h ν ) 2 ,
= 4 e 2 G S 0 ( G 1 ) μ h ν Δ ν ( h ν ) 2 .
SNR out = ( G S 0 e h ν ) 2 2 e 2 G S 0 h ν Δ ν + 4 e 2 G ( G 1 ) S 0 μ Δ ν h ν ,
SNR out S 0 4 μ h ν Δ ν
SNR in SNR out 2 μ ,
SNR ( z ) = [ e S ( z ) h ν ] 2 2 e 2 S ( z ) Δ ν h ν + 4 e 2 F ( z ) S ( z ) ( h ν ) 2 + 4 k T e Δ ν R ,
SNR ( z ) = S 2 ( z ) 2 S ( z ) h ν Δ ν + 4 S ( z ) F ( z ) .
SNR n = S 0 2 h ν Δ ν { 1 + 2 n μ [ exp ( α z 0 ) 1 ] } ,
d F = { exp [ g ( d z ) ] 1 } μ h ν Δ ν
d F d z = g μ h ν Δ ν , F ( z ) = g μ h ν Δ ν z ,
SNR ( z ) = S 0 2 ( 1 + 2 μ α z ) h ν Δ ν .
SNR ( z ) = S 0 2 { 1 + 2 ( z / z 0 ) μ [ exp ( α z 0 ) 1 ] } h ν Δ ν ,

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