Abstract

Signal and idler beams from a type I phase-matched nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator are separated by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Broadband nonclassical intensity correlation is observed, in agreement with a theory that includes pump noise. The maximum observed correlation, which occurs at 1.1 MHz, yields a noise level 2.8 dB below the shot noise.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example, the special issue on squeezed states of the electromagnetic field, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1450–1741 (1987).
  2. L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987);T. Debuisschert, S. Reynaud, A. Heidmann, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, Quantum Opt. 1, 3 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Xiao, L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. S. Lane, M. D. Reid, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1940 (1988);Phys. Rev. A 38, 788 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, W. J. Kozlovsky, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 14, 1134 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Fabre, J. Mertz, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, S. Reynaud, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 207.
  8. N. C. Wong, K. W. Leong, J. H. Shapiro, Opt. Lett. 15, 891 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. P. Yuen, V. W. S. Chan, Opt. Lett. 8, 177 (1983);H. P. Yuen, V. W. S. Chan, errata, Opt. Lett. 8, 345 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Because the single-ended pump cavity has its output at M1, we removed the green-blocking filter and were able to increase the system efficiency to 83%.

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

A. S. Lane, M. D. Reid, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1940 (1988);Phys. Rev. A 38, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

See, for example, the special issue on squeezed states of the electromagnetic field, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1450–1741 (1987).

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987);T. Debuisschert, S. Reynaud, A. Heidmann, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, Quantum Opt. 1, 3 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

Byer, R. L.

Camy, G.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987);T. Debuisschert, S. Reynaud, A. Heidmann, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, Quantum Opt. 1, 3 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, V. W. S.

Eckardt, R. C.

Fabre, C.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987);T. Debuisschert, S. Reynaud, A. Heidmann, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, Quantum Opt. 1, 3 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fabre, J. Mertz, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, S. Reynaud, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 207.

Giacobino, E.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987);T. Debuisschert, S. Reynaud, A. Heidmann, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, Quantum Opt. 1, 3 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fabre, J. Mertz, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, S. Reynaud, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 207.

Hall, J. L.

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidmann, A.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987);T. Debuisschert, S. Reynaud, A. Heidmann, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, Quantum Opt. 1, 3 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fabre, J. Mertz, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, S. Reynaud, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 207.

Horowicz, R. J.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987);T. Debuisschert, S. Reynaud, A. Heidmann, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, Quantum Opt. 1, 3 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

M. Xiao, L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozlovsky, W. J.

Lane, A. S.

A. S. Lane, M. D. Reid, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1940 (1988);Phys. Rev. A 38, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leong, K. W.

Mertz, J.

C. Fabre, J. Mertz, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, S. Reynaud, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 207.

Nabors, C. D.

Reid, M. D.

A. S. Lane, M. D. Reid, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1940 (1988);Phys. Rev. A 38, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynaud, S.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987);T. Debuisschert, S. Reynaud, A. Heidmann, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, Quantum Opt. 1, 3 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fabre, J. Mertz, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, S. Reynaud, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 207.

Shapiro, J. H.

Walls, D. F.

A. S. Lane, M. D. Reid, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1940 (1988);Phys. Rev. A 38, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, N. C.

Wu, H.

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L. A.

M. Xiao, L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuen, H. P.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

See, for example, the special issue on squeezed states of the electromagnetic field, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1450–1741 (1987).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987);T. Debuisschert, S. Reynaud, A. Heidmann, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, Quantum Opt. 1, 3 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987);P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Lane, M. D. Reid, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1940 (1988);Phys. Rev. A 38, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Because the single-ended pump cavity has its output at M1, we removed the green-blocking filter and were able to increase the system efficiency to 83%.

C. Fabre, J. Mertz, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, S. Reynaud, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 207.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the OPO intensity correlation measurement. M1, M2, OPO cavity mirrors; BF, green-blocking filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Difference photocurrent noise power at 1.5 MHz as a function of the relative phase of the interferometer's arms ΔL. The noise power is normalized to the measured shot-noise level, which includes the amplifier noise that is 16 dB lower. The observed minimum is 1.9 dB below the shot-noise level for a system efficiency of ∼75%. The time for the sweep was 0.4 sec, the analyzer bandwidth was 30 kHz, and the low-pass filter bandwidth was 100 Hz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Difference photocurrent noise spectrum showing nonclassical correlation from 0.8 to 4 MHz. The solid curve shows the observed noise suppression, which was reduced owing to phase jitter of the MZ interferometer. The dashed curve is a theoretical curve that includes pump excess noise and the measured cavity losses, with a loss mismatch of 5%. We assume an operating point at the optimal ΔkΔL = π/2 and an effective system efficiency of 35% owing to phase jitter averaging. Since the operating point may be far from optimal, the theoretical curve therefore represents the best the experiment could achieve under phase averaging. The peak near 2.5 MHz is spurious; it is due to stray rf pickup.

Equations (2)

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i ̂ 12 = q { [ A 2 + A ( â 1 + â 1 ) ] cos ( k 1 Δ L ) + j A ( υ ̂ 1 υ ̂ 1 ) sin ( k 1 Δ L ) + [ A 2 + A ( â 2 + â 2 ) ] × cos ( k 2 Δ L ) + j A ( υ ̂ 2 υ ̂ 2 ) sin ( k 2 Δ L ) } ,
i ̂ 12 = 2 q A 2 cos ( k S Δ L ) cos ( Δ k Δ L ) ,

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