Abstract

We explore and demonstrate the feasibility of an optical-frequency-to-radio-frequency division method that is based on visible or near-infrared laser oscillators only. Comparing harmonic and sum frequencies, we generate the arithmetic average of two visible frequencies. Cascading n stages provides difference-frequency division by 2n. For a demonstration we have phase locked the second harmonic and the sum frequency of two independent diode lasers.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. O. Hocker, A. Javan, D. Ramachandra Rao, C. Frenkel, T. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 147 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. Jennings, C. R. Pollock, F. R. Petersen, R. E. Drullinger, K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, J. L. Hall, H. P. Layer, Opt. Lett. 8, 136 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Biraben, J. C. Garreau, L. Julien, M. Allegrini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 621 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. Wineland, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 2528 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 12, 489 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. G. DeVoe, C. Fabre, R. G. Brewer, in Proceedings of the Fritz Haber International Symposium, Y. Prior, A. Ben-Reuven, M. Rosenbluh, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1986), p. 187.
  7. D. McIntyre, T. W. Hänsch, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper THG3; see also T. W. Hänsch, in The Hydrogen Atom, G. F. Bassani, M. Inguscio, T. W. Hänsch, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 93.
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. G. Whitford, Appl. Phys. B 35, 119 (1984), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Baumert, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 554 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Dahmani, L. Hollberg, R. Drullinger, Opt. Lett. 12, 876 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Li, H. R. Telle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 257 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Residual backscattering causes injection locking of the laser oscillators for Δ0 < 5 MHz.
  14. H. R. Telle, H. Li, “Phase locking of laser diodes,” submitted to Electron. Lett.
  15. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1985), Chap. 10.

1989 (2)

F. Biraben, J. C. Garreau, L. Julien, M. Allegrini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 621 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, H. R. Telle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 257 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

1984 (2)

B. G. Whitford, Appl. Phys. B 35, 119 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1979 (1)

D. J. Wineland, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 2528 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

L. O. Hocker, A. Javan, D. Ramachandra Rao, C. Frenkel, T. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 147 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

F. Biraben, J. C. Garreau, L. Julien, M. Allegrini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 621 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumert, J. C.

J. C. Baumert, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

F. Biraben, J. C. Garreau, L. Julien, M. Allegrini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 621 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. G. DeVoe, C. Fabre, R. G. Brewer, in Proceedings of the Fritz Haber International Symposium, Y. Prior, A. Ben-Reuven, M. Rosenbluh, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1986), p. 187.

Dahmani, B.

DeVoe, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. G. DeVoe, C. Fabre, R. G. Brewer, in Proceedings of the Fritz Haber International Symposium, Y. Prior, A. Ben-Reuven, M. Rosenbluh, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1986), p. 187.

Drullinger, R.

Drullinger, R. E.

Evenson, K. M.

Fabre, C.

R. G. DeVoe, C. Fabre, R. G. Brewer, in Proceedings of the Fritz Haber International Symposium, Y. Prior, A. Ben-Reuven, M. Rosenbluh, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1986), p. 187.

Frenkel, C.

L. O. Hocker, A. Javan, D. Ramachandra Rao, C. Frenkel, T. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 147 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Garreau, J. C.

F. Biraben, J. C. Garreau, L. Julien, M. Allegrini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 621 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Günter, P.

J. C. Baumert, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hänsch, T. W.

D. McIntyre, T. W. Hänsch, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper THG3; see also T. W. Hänsch, in The Hydrogen Atom, G. F. Bassani, M. Inguscio, T. W. Hänsch, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 93.
[CrossRef]

Hocker, L. O.

L. O. Hocker, A. Javan, D. Ramachandra Rao, C. Frenkel, T. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 147 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Javan, A.

L. O. Hocker, A. Javan, D. Ramachandra Rao, C. Frenkel, T. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 147 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, D. A.

Julien, L.

F. Biraben, J. C. Garreau, L. Julien, M. Allegrini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 621 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, A.

Layer, H. P.

Li, H.

H. Li, H. R. Telle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 257 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, H. Li, “Phase locking of laser diodes,” submitted to Electron. Lett.

McIntyre, D.

D. McIntyre, T. W. Hänsch, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper THG3; see also T. W. Hänsch, in The Hydrogen Atom, G. F. Bassani, M. Inguscio, T. W. Hänsch, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 93.
[CrossRef]

Petersen, F. R.

Pollock, C. R.

Ramachandra Rao, D.

L. O. Hocker, A. Javan, D. Ramachandra Rao, C. Frenkel, T. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 147 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, T.

L. O. Hocker, A. Javan, D. Ramachandra Rao, C. Frenkel, T. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 147 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. R.

H. Li, H. R. Telle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 257 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, H. Li, “Phase locking of laser diodes,” submitted to Electron. Lett.

Wells, J. S.

Whitford, B. G.

B. G. Whitford, Appl. Phys. B 35, 119 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

D. J. Wineland, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 2528 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1985), Chap. 10.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. G. Whitford, Appl. Phys. B 35, 119 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. C. Baumert, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Hocker, A. Javan, D. Ramachandra Rao, C. Frenkel, T. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 147 (1967).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Li, H. R. Telle, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 257 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. J. Wineland, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 2528 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Biraben, J. C. Garreau, L. Julien, M. Allegrini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 621 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

R. G. DeVoe, C. Fabre, R. G. Brewer, in Proceedings of the Fritz Haber International Symposium, Y. Prior, A. Ben-Reuven, M. Rosenbluh, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1986), p. 187.

D. McIntyre, T. W. Hänsch, in Digest of Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper THG3; see also T. W. Hänsch, in The Hydrogen Atom, G. F. Bassani, M. Inguscio, T. W. Hänsch, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 93.
[CrossRef]

Residual backscattering causes injection locking of the laser oscillators for Δ0 < 5 MHz.

H. R. Telle, H. Li, “Phase locking of laser diodes,” submitted to Electron. Lett.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1985), Chap. 10.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of an optical difference-frequency divider.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical-frequency divider and synthesizer based on the Nd:YAG laser system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the experimental demonstration system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radio-frequency spectrum of the photocurrent beat note under phase-locked conditions. Filter bandwidth, 10 kHz; video bandwidth, 1 kHz; sweep time, 1.1 sec.

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