Abstract

We demonstrate nearly diffraction-limited printing of 0.2-μm features, using soft x rays of approximately 36-nm wavelength. An open-stencil transmission mask with minimum features of 4 μm was imaged by a twentyfold-reduction Schwarzschild-type objective onto silicon wafers coated with various e-beam resists. Implications for soft-x-ray projection lithography are discussed.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Lindblom, Science 241, 1781 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, Opt. Commun. 68, 190 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. See, e.g., Y. Vladimirsky, D. Kern, W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Attwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 286 (1989); G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, O. Christ, in X-Ray Microscopy, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 63; H. Aritome, K. Nagata, S. Namba, Microelectron. Eng. 3, 459 (1985); J. A. Trail, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 14, 539 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. M. Ceglio, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 1, 7 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Tropel Division GCA Corporation, Fairport, N.Y. 14450.
  7. National Synchrotron Light Source Annual Report (National Technical Information Services, Springfield, Va., 1988), p. 21.
  8. B. M. Kincaid, R. R. Freeman, C. Pellegrini, A. Luccio, S. Krinsky, A. van Steenbergen, F. de Martini, AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 110 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. For a comprehensive review see, e.g., M. P. Bruijn, J. Verhoeven, E. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 984, 54 (1988).
  10. W. T Silfvast, O. R. Wood, Microelectron. Eng. 8, 3 (1988); A. M. Hawryluk, L. G. Seppala, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 2162 (1988), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]

1989 (3)

See, e.g., Y. Vladimirsky, D. Kern, W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Attwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 286 (1989); G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, O. Christ, in X-Ray Microscopy, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 63; H. Aritome, K. Nagata, S. Namba, Microelectron. Eng. 3, 459 (1985); J. A. Trail, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 14, 539 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Ceglio, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 1, 7 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Lindblom, Science 241, 1781 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, Opt. Commun. 68, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

For a comprehensive review see, e.g., M. P. Bruijn, J. Verhoeven, E. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 984, 54 (1988).

W. T Silfvast, O. R. Wood, Microelectron. Eng. 8, 3 (1988); A. M. Hawryluk, L. G. Seppala, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 2162 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. M. Kincaid, R. R. Freeman, C. Pellegrini, A. Luccio, S. Krinsky, A. van Steenbergen, F. de Martini, AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 110 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

See, e.g., Y. Vladimirsky, D. Kern, W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Attwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 286 (1989); G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, O. Christ, in X-Ray Microscopy, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 63; H. Aritome, K. Nagata, S. Namba, Microelectron. Eng. 3, 459 (1985); J. A. Trail, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 14, 539 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbee, T. W.

A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Lindblom, Science 241, 1781 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, C. M.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, Opt. Commun. 68, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bruijn, M. P.

For a comprehensive review see, e.g., M. P. Bruijn, J. Verhoeven, E. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 984, 54 (1988).

Ceglio, N. M.

N. M. Ceglio, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 1, 7 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, Opt. Commun. 68, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

de Martini, F.

B. M. Kincaid, R. R. Freeman, C. Pellegrini, A. Luccio, S. Krinsky, A. van Steenbergen, F. de Martini, AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 110 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, U.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, Opt. Commun. 68, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

B. M. Kincaid, R. R. Freeman, C. Pellegrini, A. Luccio, S. Krinsky, A. van Steenbergen, F. de Martini, AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 110 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hoover, R. B.

A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Lindblom, Science 241, 1781 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, Y.

H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kern, D.

See, e.g., Y. Vladimirsky, D. Kern, W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Attwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 286 (1989); G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, O. Christ, in X-Ray Microscopy, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 63; H. Aritome, K. Nagata, S. Namba, Microelectron. Eng. 3, 459 (1985); J. A. Trail, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 14, 539 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kincaid, B. M.

B. M. Kincaid, R. R. Freeman, C. Pellegrini, A. Luccio, S. Krinsky, A. van Steenbergen, F. de Martini, AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 110 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, H.

H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Krinsky, S.

B. M. Kincaid, R. R. Freeman, C. Pellegrini, A. Luccio, S. Krinsky, A. van Steenbergen, F. de Martini, AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 110 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, K.

H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lindblom, J. F.

A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Lindblom, Science 241, 1781 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luccio, A.

B. M. Kincaid, R. R. Freeman, C. Pellegrini, A. Luccio, S. Krinsky, A. van Steenbergen, F. de Martini, AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 110 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-Ilse, W.

See, e.g., Y. Vladimirsky, D. Kern, W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Attwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 286 (1989); G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, O. Christ, in X-Ray Microscopy, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 63; H. Aritome, K. Nagata, S. Namba, Microelectron. Eng. 3, 459 (1985); J. A. Trail, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 14, 539 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellegrini, C.

B. M. Kincaid, R. R. Freeman, C. Pellegrini, A. Luccio, S. Krinsky, A. van Steenbergen, F. de Martini, AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 110 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Puik, E.

For a comprehensive review see, e.g., M. P. Bruijn, J. Verhoeven, E. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 984, 54 (1988).

Richardson, M. C.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, Opt. Commun. 68, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, Opt. Commun. 68, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Silfvast, W. T

W. T Silfvast, O. R. Wood, Microelectron. Eng. 8, 3 (1988); A. M. Hawryluk, L. G. Seppala, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 2162 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Torii, Y.

H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, Opt. Commun. 68, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van der Wiel, M. J.

For a comprehensive review see, e.g., M. P. Bruijn, J. Verhoeven, E. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 984, 54 (1988).

van Steenbergen, A.

B. M. Kincaid, R. R. Freeman, C. Pellegrini, A. Luccio, S. Krinsky, A. van Steenbergen, F. de Martini, AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 110 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Verhoeven, J.

For a comprehensive review see, e.g., M. P. Bruijn, J. Verhoeven, E. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 984, 54 (1988).

Vladimirsky, Y.

See, e.g., Y. Vladimirsky, D. Kern, W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Attwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 286 (1989); G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, O. Christ, in X-Ray Microscopy, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 63; H. Aritome, K. Nagata, S. Namba, Microelectron. Eng. 3, 459 (1985); J. A. Trail, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 14, 539 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, A. B. C.

A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Lindblom, Science 241, 1781 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, O. R.

W. T Silfvast, O. R. Wood, Microelectron. Eng. 8, 3 (1988); A. M. Hawryluk, L. G. Seppala, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 2162 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Zigler, A.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, Opt. Commun. 68, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

B. M. Kincaid, R. R. Freeman, C. Pellegrini, A. Luccio, S. Krinsky, A. van Steenbergen, F. de Martini, AIP Conf. Proc. 118, 110 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

See, e.g., Y. Vladimirsky, D. Kern, W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Attwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 286 (1989); G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, P. Guttman, O. Christ, in X-Ray Microscopy, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 63; H. Aritome, K. Nagata, S. Namba, Microelectron. Eng. 3, 459 (1985); J. A. Trail, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 14, 539 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. (1)

N. M. Ceglio, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 1, 7 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

W. T Silfvast, O. R. Wood, Microelectron. Eng. 8, 3 (1988); A. M. Hawryluk, L. G. Seppala, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 2162 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, Opt. Commun. 68, 190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

For a comprehensive review see, e.g., M. P. Bruijn, J. Verhoeven, E. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 984, 54 (1988).

Science (1)

A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Lindblom, Science 241, 1781 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Tropel Division GCA Corporation, Fairport, N.Y. 14450.

National Synchrotron Light Source Annual Report (National Technical Information Services, Springfield, Va., 1988), p. 21.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram showing the basic experimental arrangement. The two mirrors that compose the Schwarzschild objective were mounted in a single housing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated MTF curves for the Schwarzschild objective with spatially incoherent illumination for two different situations: on-axis illumination with light at 157 nm and with the full N.A. (0.4), and off-axis illumination at 36 nm with N.A. = 0.113.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron micrographs of developed images in a 60-nm-thick film of PMMA on silicon: (a) the lines and spaces shown have widths of 1, 0.5, 0.375, 0.25, and 0.2 μm; (b) closeup of the 0.2-μm lines and spaces.

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