Abstract

A new technique for measuring optical-fiber-attenuation characteristics is described. The technique uses stimulated Brillouin scattering in the fiber between a counterpropagating pulsed pump wave and a cw Stokes probe wave. Fiber attenuation is estimated nondestructively from amplification of the probe wave through stimulated Brillouin scattering. Experiments with a 5.2-km-long single-mode fiber reveal that the output signal is approximately 100 times that of the Rayleigh backscattered signal observed in conventional optical time-domain reflectometry. The signal fluctuation due to polarization-dependent Brillouin gain is successfully removed by polarization averaging.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Nakazawa, M. Tokuda, K. Washio, Y. Morishige, Electron. Lett. 17, 783 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Noguchi, Y. Murakami, K. Yamashita, F. Ashiya, Electron. Lett. 18, 41 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Okada, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibata, Y. Nagaki, Electron. Lett. 16, 629 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Healy, P. Hensel, Electron. Lett. 16, 631 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Suzuki, T. Horiguchi, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 20, 714 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. King, D. F. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. E. Epworth, S. Wright, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 616 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. J. Rogers, Appl. Opt. 20, 1060 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. H. Hartog, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 498 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, J. N. Ross, Electron. Lett. 21, 569 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. C. Farries, A. J. Rogers, in Proceedings of Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (TDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 121.
  11. D. Cotter, J. Opt. Commun. 1, 10 (1983).
  12. R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. P. King, D. F. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. E. Epworth, S. Wright, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 616 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, J. N. Ross, Electron. Lett. 21, 569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

K. Suzuki, T. Horiguchi, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 20, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

D. Cotter, J. Opt. Commun. 1, 10 (1983).

A. H. Hartog, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 498 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

K. Noguchi, Y. Murakami, K. Yamashita, F. Ashiya, Electron. Lett. 18, 41 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

M. Nakazawa, M. Tokuda, K. Washio, Y. Morishige, Electron. Lett. 17, 783 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Rogers, Appl. Opt. 20, 1060 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

K. Okada, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibata, Y. Nagaki, Electron. Lett. 16, 629 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. Healy, P. Hensel, Electron. Lett. 16, 631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ashiya, F.

K. Noguchi, Y. Murakami, K. Yamashita, F. Ashiya, Electron. Lett. 18, 41 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bibby, G. W.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, J. N. Ross, Electron. Lett. 21, 569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

D. Cotter, J. Opt. Commun. 1, 10 (1983).

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, J. N. Ross, Electron. Lett. 21, 569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Epworth, R. E.

J. P. King, D. F. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. E. Epworth, S. Wright, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 616 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Farries, M. C.

M. C. Farries, A. J. Rogers, in Proceedings of Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (TDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 121.

Hartog, A. H.

A. H. Hartog, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 498 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

K. Okada, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibata, Y. Nagaki, Electron. Lett. 16, 629 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Healy, P.

P. Healy, P. Hensel, Electron. Lett. 16, 631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hensel, P.

P. Healy, P. Hensel, Electron. Lett. 16, 631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, T.

K. Suzuki, T. Horiguchi, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 20, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

King, J. P.

J. P. King, D. F. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. E. Epworth, S. Wright, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 616 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Morishige, Y.

M. Nakazawa, M. Tokuda, K. Washio, Y. Morishige, Electron. Lett. 17, 783 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

K. Noguchi, Y. Murakami, K. Yamashita, F. Ashiya, Electron. Lett. 18, 41 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nagaki, Y.

K. Okada, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibata, Y. Nagaki, Electron. Lett. 16, 629 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, M. Tokuda, K. Washio, Y. Morishige, Electron. Lett. 17, 783 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, K.

K. Noguchi, Y. Murakami, K. Yamashita, F. Ashiya, Electron. Lett. 18, 41 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Okada, K.

K. Okada, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibata, Y. Nagaki, Electron. Lett. 16, 629 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, D. J.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, J. N. Ross, Electron. Lett. 21, 569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Richards, K.

J. P. King, D. F. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. E. Epworth, S. Wright, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 616 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, A. J.

A. J. Rogers, Appl. Opt. 20, 1060 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Farries, A. J. Rogers, in Proceedings of Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (TDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 121.

Ross, J. N.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, J. N. Ross, Electron. Lett. 21, 569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Seikai, S.

K. Suzuki, T. Horiguchi, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 20, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

K. Okada, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibata, Y. Nagaki, Electron. Lett. 16, 629 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. F.

J. P. King, D. F. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. E. Epworth, S. Wright, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 616 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, T. Horiguchi, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 20, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Timson, P.

J. P. King, D. F. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. E. Epworth, S. Wright, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 616 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, M.

M. Nakazawa, M. Tokuda, K. Washio, Y. Morishige, Electron. Lett. 17, 783 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Washio, K.

M. Nakazawa, M. Tokuda, K. Washio, Y. Morishige, Electron. Lett. 17, 783 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wright, S.

J. P. King, D. F. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. E. Epworth, S. Wright, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 616 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

K. Noguchi, Y. Murakami, K. Yamashita, F. Ashiya, Electron. Lett. 18, 41 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (6)

M. Nakazawa, M. Tokuda, K. Washio, Y. Morishige, Electron. Lett. 17, 783 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Noguchi, Y. Murakami, K. Yamashita, F. Ashiya, Electron. Lett. 18, 41 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Okada, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibata, Y. Nagaki, Electron. Lett. 16, 629 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. Healy, P. Hensel, Electron. Lett. 16, 631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, T. Horiguchi, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 20, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, J. N. Ross, Electron. Lett. 21, 569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. P. King, D. F. Smith, K. Richards, P. Timson, R. E. Epworth, S. Wright, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 616 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Hartog, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 498 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Cotter, J. Opt. Commun. 1, 10 (1983).

Other (1)

M. C. Farries, A. J. Rogers, in Proceedings of Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (TDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 121.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement of the pulse-wave stimulated-Brillouin-scattering technique. ISO’s, isolators.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Amplified probe signal obtained with (a) the proposed technique (vertical scale 50 mV/division, horizontal scale 10 μsec/division) and (b) the Rayleigh backscattered technique (vertical scale 10 mV/division, horizontal scale 10 μsec/division).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization-dependent Brillouin gain effect on the estimation of fiber attenuation. The vertical scale is linear, and the unamplified dc probe power level is subtracted. (a) and (b) show the orthogonally polarized pump pulses, and (c) shows the mean of (a) and (b).

Equations (2)

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δ P = g P 1 ( z ) [ P 2 ( z ) / A ] ( v T / 2 ) = g P 1 ( 0 ) [ P 2 ( L ) exp ( - α L ) / A ] ( v T / 2 ) ,
P BS ( t ) = δ P [ exp ( - α v t / 2 ) ] .

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