Abstract

Refractive and absorptive optical nonlinearity can be distinguished using a pump–probe interferometric technique with picosecond time resolution. The method is applied to both resonant and nonresonant nonlinearities in optical fibers and reveals marked differences between the relaxation behavior of the refractive and absorptive nonlinearity certain cases. A monomode fiber doped with CdSxSe1−x semiconductor nanocrystals exhibits a large optically in induced phase shift with ~10-psec relaxation time, which is many orders faster than the relaxation of the absorptive nonlinearity under identical conditions.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).
  2. G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R57 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.-M. Halbout, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Stolen, J. Botineau, A. Ashkin, Opt. Lett. 7, 512 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, D. Cotter, Electron. Lett. 23, 405 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Cotter, B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, C. N. Ironside, in Digest of Sixteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WG-3.
  10. G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, L. Banyai, Opt. Lett. 12, 413 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. I. Zheludev, I. S. Ruddock, R. Illingworth, Opt. Quantum Electron. 20, 119 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1959), pp. 191, 260; typical data from Optical Glass Catalogue (Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981).
  13. J. T. Remillard, D. G. Steel, Opt. Lett. 13, 30 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Cotter, Electron. Lett. 22, 693 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1988

N. I. Zheludev, I. S. Ruddock, R. Illingworth, Opt. Quantum Electron. 20, 119 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Remillard, D. G. Steel, Opt. Lett. 13, 30 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, D. Cotter, Electron. Lett. 23, 405 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, L. Banyai, Opt. Lett. 12, 413 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter, Electron. Lett. 22, 693 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982

R. H. Stolen, J. Botineau, A. Ashkin, Opt. Lett. 7, 512 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Halbout, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, D. Cotter, Electron. Lett. 23, 405 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter, B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, C. N. Ironside, in Digest of Sixteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WG-3.

Ashkin, A.

Banyai, L.

Botineau, J.

Carslaw, H. S.

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1959), pp. 191, 260; typical data from Optical Glass Catalogue (Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981).

Cotter, D.

B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, D. Cotter, Electron. Lett. 23, 405 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter, Electron. Lett. 22, 693 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter, B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, C. N. Ironside, in Digest of Sixteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WG-3.

Flytzanis, C.

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

Girdlestone, H. P.

B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, D. Cotter, Electron. Lett. 23, 405 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter, B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, C. N. Ironside, in Digest of Sixteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WG-3.

Halbout, J.-M.

J.-M. Halbout, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Illingworth, R.

N. I. Zheludev, I. S. Ruddock, R. Illingworth, Opt. Quantum Electron. 20, 119 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ironside, C. N.

D. Cotter, B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, C. N. Ironside, in Digest of Sixteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WG-3.

Jaeger, J. C.

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1959), pp. 191, 260; typical data from Optical Glass Catalogue (Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981).

Koch, S. W.

Lin, C.

R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Olbright, G. R.

Peyghambarian, N.

Remillard, J. T.

Ricard, D.

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Roussignol, P.

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ruddock, I. S.

N. I. Zheludev, I. S. Ruddock, R. Illingworth, Opt. Quantum Electron. 20, 119 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, C. T.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Steel, D. G.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Tang, C. L.

J.-M. Halbout, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. I. Zheludev, I. S. Ruddock, R. Illingworth, Opt. Quantum Electron. 20, 119 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Halbout, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, D. Cotter, Electron. Lett. 23, 405 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter, Electron. Lett. 22, 693 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

N. I. Zheludev, I. S. Ruddock, R. Illingworth, Opt. Quantum Electron. 20, 119 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

D. Cotter, B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, C. N. Ironside, in Digest of Sixteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper WG-3.

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1959), pp. 191, 260; typical data from Optical Glass Catalogue (Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for the pump–probe interferometry. P’s, prisms; PZT’s, piezoelectric transducers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured probe phase shift ΔΦ and the equivalent refractive-index change Δn = ΔΦλ/2πl in a silica fiber of length l = 39 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission change ΔT (upper curve) and the induced refractive index Δn (lower curve) in a 10-mm-long semiconductor-doped glass fiber as a function of time delay after excitation with a 4-psec pulse.

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